The ratios of specific heats, γ = (CP/CV), for three gases (air, argon and carbon dioxide) were calculated by measuring the oscillations of different masses in various apparatus. The experiments followed Rüchardt's and Rinkel's methods; a 100ml glass gas syringe was additionally used to extend the investigation as well as a technique to elimination of friction. The approaches and results were compared; the most accurate method (Rüchardt's method alongside compensation for friction) yielded:
Air, γ = 1.358 ± 0.0038
Argon, γ = 1.6597 ± 0.0009
Carbon dioxide, γ = 1.2996 ± 0.0087
These differ from the literature value by 3.0%, 0.6% and 1.5% respectively. The reasons for these apparent discrepancies are discussed.