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pdftitle=Women and mathematics at the Universities in Prague in the first half of the 20th century, %%<--To wymienić
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%\received[23.11.2014]{29.10.2014}
\secnameMS{HISTORY and PHILOSOPHY of MATHEMATICS}
\pages{133--167}
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\title[Women and mathematics at the Universities in Prague]{Women and mathematics at the Universities in Prague in the first half of the 20th century\footnote{\today}}
%\footnote{The main results of this article were presented at the conference \textit{Development of Mathematics and Related Sciences in Central-Eastern Europe in the 20th Century}, Krak\'{o}w, September 13--15, 2017.}}
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%\thanks{Pierwotna wersja pracy ukazała się w Wi?sław, Witold (ed.) {\sc History of Polish mathematics. (Dzieje matematyki polskiej.)} (in Polish), \emph{Instytut Matematyczny Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego}, Wrocław 2012, 311 p. (ISBN 978-83-910055-4-5). \ZBL{1258.01002}}
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\author[M. Bečvářová]{Martina Bečvářová}%(Albuquerque)
%\thanks{The original version of this work appeared in Więsław, Witold (ed.) {\sc History of Polish Mathematics II. (Dzieje matematyki polskiej II.)} (in Polish), \emph{Institute of Mathematics, Wrocław University}, Wrocław 2013, 326 pp. (ISBN 978-83-910055-8-3). \ZBL{1281.01005}}
\affiliation{Czech Technical University in Prague}
\address{Institute of Applied Mathematics\\
$\mbox{\hspace{2em}}$Faculty of Transportation Sciences\\
$\mbox{\hspace{2em}}$Na Florenci 25, 100 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic
}
\email{becvamar@fd.cvut.cz}
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\city{Prague}
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\keywords{Mathematical education, women in mathematics, doctoral procedures in mathematics, Charles University in Prague, German University in Prague, first half of the 20th century}
\keywordsPL{Kszta\l cenie matematyczne, kobiety w matematyce, przewody doktorskie z matematyki, Uniwersytet Karola w~Pradze, Uniwersytet Niemiecki w~Pradze, I po\l owa XX wieku}
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%\noindent{\bf Streszczenie.}
\begin{abstract} This study is focused on lives of twelve women who prepared their doctorates in mathematics at the Faculty of Philosophy of the German University in Prague in the years 1882--1945, respectively at the Faculty of Science of the Czech University in Prague in the years 1882--1920 and 1921--1945 (known as Charles University in Prague in the latter period). In the first part, a~short description of the historical background about women's studies at the universities in the Czech lands and a~statistical overview of all PhD degrees in mathematics awarded at both universities in Prague is given for a~better understanding of the situation with women's doctoral procedures. In the second part, a~description of the successful doctoral procedures in mathematics of three women at the German University in Prague and of eight women at Charles University in Prague, as well as one unsuccessful doctoral procedure, are presented.
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\hskip-16pt\textbf{Keywords:} Mathematical education, women in mathematics, doctoral procedures in mathematics, Charles University in Prague, German University in Prague, first half of the 20th century.
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\section{Introduction: A brief description of women's studies at the high schools and universities in the Czech lands in the 19$^{\text{th}}$ century and the first half of the 20$^{\text{th}}$ century.} It was not easy for women in the Czech lands to study at a university. In the first half of the 19$^{\text{th}}$ century, higher education of girls and women was almost unheard of. The reason is that a woman was supposed to be a~good wife, mother and patriot -- she should bring up children with care, responsibility and in the spirit of patriotism, thereby ensuring public respect for her family. If necessary, she should help her husband to run his trade. Public educational institutions for women as well as private ones (mostly religious and aristocratic) were rare and conformed to the above idea of women's mission. The only exception was the Prague school Bude\v{c}, which was opened by Karel Slavoj Amerling (1807--1884) in the year 1842. The school was intended for all women, from any level of society. The emphasis was placed on general education. Thanks to Amerling, it was even possible for women in 1844 to attend lectures at the Faculty of Medicine of Prague University as auditors. However, in 1848 Bude\v{c} school was terminaned. Starting from the 1840s, women more and more engaged in public life, at first only as hostesses or participants of sessions in salons, in which literature, science and arts were discussed.\footnote{Significant women engaged in social life included the sisters Bohuslava Rajsk\'a (1817--1852, original name Antonie Reissov\'a, married name \v{C}elakovsk\'a), Johana Terezie Carolina Fri\v{c}ov\'a (1809--1849, n\'ee Reissov\'a), Karolina Sta\v{n}kov\'a (1813--1867, n\'ee Reissov\'a), as well as Franti\v{s}ka Svatava Amerlingov\'a (1812--1887, n\'ee Michalovicov\'a), Honorata Zapov\'a (1825--1856, n\'ee Wi\'sniowsk\'ych).}
%\smallskip
A more significant change happened in the early 1860s, when activities of associations started to develop after the downfall of Bach's absolutistic government and the network of schools of all types and grades began to expand. In 1865, an entrepreneur, mecenas of science and philanthropist Vojt\v{e}ch (Vojta, Adalbert) N\'aprstek (1826--1894, original name Fingerhut) founded, in his house ``U Hal\'ank\accent23u" situated on the Bethlem Square in Prague, American Ladies' Club [\textit{Americk\'y klub dam}], which became the oldest women's organization on the territory of the Austrian monarchy. It was a~center where women, especially those from the middle class, were educated. Women could use the library, listen to lectures in natural sciences, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, history, arts, politics and also technology. The lecturers were Czech scientists, travellers, writers, artists, politicians and others. The club members made visits to various factories, hospitals, social care institutions, astronomical observatory and so on. Activities of the club were very popular and trendy at that time.
%\vskip1mm
In that period, some women in wealthy families understood that without education and opportunities for a professional employment wo\-men would not find jobs, and so they would be dependent on their parents, husbands or families. In the year 1865, as a~result of an initiative by Eli\v{s}ka Kr\'asnohorsk\'a (1847--1926, original name Al\v{z}b\v{e}ta Pechov\'a), Sofie Podlipsk\'a (1833--1897, n\'ee Rottov\'a), Johanna Mu\v{z}\'akov\'a (1830--1899, n\'ee Rottov\'a, alias Karolina Sv\v{e}tl\'a) and Marie Riegrov\'a (1833--1891, n\'ee Palack\'a), the first Czech Manufacturing Association [\textit{\v{C}esk\'y v\'yrobn\'{\i} spolek}] was established, followed by a~technical school for girls, which was transformed into Women's Manufacturing Association [\textit{\v{Z}ensk\'y v\'yrobn\'{\i} spolek}] in 1871. Within the framework of the association women could attend educational courses (in modern languages, economics, economy and civil service, drawing, engraving, nursing and others) and prepare themselves for practical employment.
%\smallskip
The first higher school for girls [\textit{Vy\v{s}\v{s}\'{\i} d\'{\i}v\v{c}\'{\i} \v{s}kola}], which was intended mainly for girls descending from middle and higher social levels, was opened in Prague in the year 1863. It provided secondary education, however without the possibility of passing a~graduation examination. Four years later, the school gained a~building in Vodi\v{c}kova Street, became popular and was attended by many students. Among others, the school was attended by renowned representatives of Czech culture (painter Zdenka Braunerov\'a (1858--1934), writer Helena Mal\'{\i}\v{r}ov\'a (1874--1940, n\'ee Noskov\'a), soprano Ema Destinov\'a (1878--1930), actresses Hana Kvapilov\'a (1860--1907) and R\accent23u\v{z}ena Naskov\'a (1884--1960, n\'ee Noskov\'a)).
%\smallskip
The \textit{American Ladies' Club} and \textit{Women's Manufacturing Association} gave rise to an initiative to promote the right of women to study at a university. In the mid-1870s, the first three women, young members of the American Ladies' Club (Anna Bayerov\'a (1852--1924), Bohuslava Keckov\'a (1854--1911) and Julie Kurkov\'a) left for Switzerland in order to pursue their studies because women were not allowed to study at a~university in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.\footnote{Let us mention that in Switzerland, university studies of women were permitted already in the 1860s (e.g. at the Technical School and University in Zurich since the year 1864). See \cite{Bac[16]} and \cite{Bac[17]}.} After much trouble, the first two completed their studies of medicine in Bern (1881), resp. Zurich (1880), the third one died shortly before the completion of her studies of philosophy. After their return to Bohemia, the young female physicians were not allowed to open their practices. Their lives and activities were observed with empathy and hope by the Czech public.\footnote{For more information see \cite{Bac[16]}.}
%\smallskip
An important year with regard to women's education was the year 1878, when women gained the right to pass a~graduation examination at classical gymnasiums for boys. However, there did not exist any school to prepare them for this examination. In addition, women with secondary-school education had limited possibilities of employment in the monarchy.
%\smallskip
Emancipation of women with regard to education was not easy. In the year 1890, E.~Kr\'asnohorsk\'a founded the Minerva association, which had a~clearly defined goal -- to open a~gymnasium to prepare girls for university studies under the same conditions as boys. After many petitions, interventions and lobbying, in September of 1890, the Empire Council in Vienna amended the obsolete legislation and approved Minerva -- the first gymnasium for girls in the Middle Europe. In 1892 the first gymnasium for girls in Vienna was established, inspired by the Prague gymnasium for girls.\footnote{Let us mention that the first gymnasium for girls in Germany was opened in Karlsruhe in 1893.} The first students of Minerva graduated already in the year 1895 at the Academic Gymnasium (for boys) in Prague. The examinations were more strict and demanding for girls than for boys.
%\vskip2mm
It seemed that there was no obstacle for women to study at a university because in 1878, the Ministry of Education and Enlightenment issued a~decree which allowed women to attend all ``university lectures suitable for women.'' The reality was however quite different. The first five graduates of Minerva who applied for admittance to the Faculty of Medicine in Prague were refused by the professors. Complicated negotiations were necessary with the aim to enable the women to study. In 1895, the Faculty of Philosophy of the Czech University in Prague\footnote{In the years 1882--1920, the university used the name \textit{\v{C}esk\'a Karlo-Ferdinandova univerzita v~Praze}. The university used the name \textit{Univerzita Karlova} from the year 1920, when the act ``Lex Mare\v{s}" was passed, codifying the mutual relationship of the two Prague universities. Further on we will use the abbreviated form Czech University.} admitted six Minerva graduates as the so-called visiting students, which means on probation. In the same year, the Faculty of Medicine of the German University in Prague\footnote{In the years 1882 till 1919, the university used the name \textit{N\v{e}meck\'a Karlo-Ferdinandova univerzita v Praze}, from 1920 \textit{N\v{e}meck\'a univerzita v~Praze}, from 1939 \textit{N\v{e}meck\'a Karlova univerzita v Praze}. Further on, we will use the abbreviated form German University.} allowed studies of the first three Minerva graduates. In 1896, also the Faculty of Medicine of the Czech University in Prague allowed that women could be admitted to study as visiting students. Starting from that year, the Austro-Hungarian Empire began to recognize foreign diplomas of women, who however had to undergo a~demanding international recognition at a~university of the monarchy. From 1897, all the faculties of philosophy of the monarchy admitted women to regular studies without obstructions and under the same conditions as men.\footnote{It is interesting that the professors of mathematics and natural sciences at both universities in Prague (for example F.J. Studni\v{c}ka, G.H.W. Kowalewski) were not conservative: they supported women and helped them to study at the secondary schools and they arranged that women could attend their lectures as visiting students.} Three years later women had the right to study at all faculties of medicine in the whole monarchy. In 1900, eight women completed their studies at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Czech University in Prague, where they got prepared for the profession of secondary-school teachers in various subjects of humanistic and natural sciences (mathematics, physics, geography and history).\footnote{Women were permitted to pass examinations of teaching proficiency since the year 1904. Until the end of the World War~I, they were however allowed to teach at secondary schools for girls only. After the formation of the Czechoslovak Republic, they could teach at secondary schools of all types.} Some of them gained a~position at the Prague Minerva or the Girl's Lyc\'ee of the Vesna association in Brno.\footnote{The \textit{Vesna} association was established in 1870 in Brno as the so-called singers' union. Later on, it was changed into an educational and manufacturing association for women. In 1886, thanks to Eli\v{s}ka Machov\'a (1858--1926), association activist and teacher, the association established a~Czech school for continued education of girls. This school soon changed into a~technical school and ``literature school,'' which was gradually expanded to a~higher school for girls. In 1891, the number of the schools increased since a~classic boarding-school for girls was established. In 1901, the school system was reorganized to a~great extent and the following structure became standard: six-class public lyc\'ee (preparation for university studies), technical school (preparation for practical life, including one-year department and two-year department, offering a~special course for teachers of women's works at public schools, course for nurses in nursery schools, course for cooks and housewives; further occasional courses of lacemaking, embroidery, hat-making, ironing, evening courses for female workers and servants), higher school for girls (preparation of administrative workers, clerks, home teachers etc., offering education in trade, languages, music and economy) and
a~boarding-school for girls. To support this structure, Vesna maintained its steady teaching staff, consisting of 39 internal and 18 external male and female members. The schools resided in two modern buildings, and the boarding-school also occupied two buildings. They were financed from the state and regional subsidies, school fees and contributions from the Vesna association. For more information, see e.g. \cite{Bac[11]}.} In 1908, the first eight women completed their studies of pharmacy and in the same year, \textit{Association of Academically Educated Women} was established. In 1901 the first two female doctors -- Marie Zde\v{n}ka Baborov\'a-\v{C}ih\'akov\'a (1877--1937, zoology) and Marie Fabi\'anov\'a (1872--1943, mathematics)\footnote{See \cite{Bac[14]} and \cite{Bac[15]}.} graduated at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Czech University in Prague. In 1902, Alb\'{\i}na Honz\'akov\'a (1875--1940) graduated at the Faculty of Medicine of the Czech University in Prague.\footnote{See \cite{Bac[13]}.} The German University in Prague was more open with regard to women studies, but more conservative with regard to female doctorates; the first women, Hedwig Fischmann (1885--?) and Charlotta Weil (1886--?), were awarded doctorate at the Faculty of Philosophy of the German University in Prague as late as 1908 (the former in the subject of the German language and literature, the latter in chemistry).\footnote{See \cite{Bac[16]}. Problems of education of German women in our lands are briefly dealt with in the article \cite{Bac[9]}.}
At the time of the World War I, the number of studying women increased. Women filled up openings left by men-soldiers. In 1918, Washington Declaration adopted a~principle that women are equal to men with regard to politics, social and cultural matters. In 1918, independent Czechoslovak Republic was formed, which, among others, gave women suffrage and the right to study also at faculties of law. The Section 106 of the new Czechoslovak constitution of 1920 declared that no sex is privileged. In the same year, the Czech Technical University in Prague admitted the first twenty regular female students. Since 1920s, women could study all university subjects (except for theology). Women gradually gained positions of assistants at clinics (Bo\v{z}ena Nev\v{s}\'{\i}malov\'a-Fialov\'a (1885--1957) at a~Czech clinic in 1908), honorary doctorates (E.~Kr\'asnohorsk\'a at Charles University in 1922), associate professors (Milada Paulov\'a (1891--1970) at Charles University in 1925 in history),\footnote{Before 1939, the Faculty of Philosophy of Charles University in Prague awarded the title of associate professors to four women -- M.~Paulov\'a, Flora Kleinschnitzov\'a (1891--1946) in 1929 in history of Czech and Slovak literature, R\accent23u\v{z}ena Vackov\'a (1901--1982) in 1930 in classical archaeology, Drahom\'{\i}ra Str\'ansk\'a (1899--1964) in 1932 in ethnography.
Before 1939, the Faculty of Science of Charles University awarded the title of associate professors to only two women -- Alb\'{\i}na Dratvov\'a (1892--1969) in 1932 in philosophy of exact sciences and Julie Moschelesov\'a (1892--1956) in 1934 in anthropogeography (the present-day socio-economic geography).
In the interwar period, the Faculty of Medicine of Charles University awarded the title of associate professors to two women. Vlasta \v{R}\'{\i}hov\'a-Knappov\'a (1890--1960), n\'ee Mou\v{c}kov\'a, obtained the title of associate professor in 1932 in dermatology and venerology and Olga Valentov\'a (1900--1981), married name Deningerov\'a, obtained the title of associate professor in 1933 in the same field.
In the pre-war period, the Faculty of Law of Charles University did not award the title of associate professor to any woman.
In 1926, the Faculty of Medicine of the German University in Prague awarded the title of associate professor to Hedwiga Langecker (1894--1989) in experimental pharmacology, who in 1935 was appointed an extraordinary professor. In 1936, Maria Schmidt, n\'ee Mittelbach (1900--?), obtained the title of associate professor in anatomical pathology and in 1942 was appointed an extraordinary professor; however, shortly afterwards, she was forced to take a ``holiday.'' For more information see \cite{Bac[16]}.} professors (M.~Paulov\'a at Charles University: extraordinary professor in 1935, regular professor in 1939, however, she could take the post only in 1945).\footnote{For more comparison with the situation in Europe or USA, see \cite{Bac[1]}, \cite{Bac[18]} and \cite{Bac[8]}.}
It is natural that women with university education found employment mainly as physicians or teachers. Only few of them had the opportunity and courage to embark on an academic career. Many of them, even after the completion of their demanding studies, got married and devoted themselves to their families rather than their professional careers. At that time, the society did accept university studies of women and tolerate women with university education in some professions (teachers, physicians, pharmacists, notaries), but was not able to get rid of usual stereotypes. The situation was aggravated by the economic crisis in the years 1929--1933, when women were regarded as undesirable competitors of men for jobs. It was only in the late 1930s that the society started to get accustomed to the idea that women would gradually take up positions traditionally reserved for men.\footnote{For more information see \cite{Bac[16]}.}
\subsection{\label{subs2.1} Doctorate degrees awarded in mathematics at the German University in Prague in the years 1882 till 1945.\footnote{The analysis is based on the studies of various ``fonds" of the Archive of the Charles University in Prague.}}
From the year 1882, when the German University in Prague was established, untill the year 1945, when it was terminated, there were 43 doctorate degrees awarded in mathematics, 39 doctoral theses were defended (including those by three females, resp. ten foreigners), three doctorates were internationally recognized, one international recognition was conditioned on passing an additional PhD main examination in mathematics, three candidates did not obtain the doctorate, one candidate was rejected in the first stage of the proceedings (however, three years later, he submitted a~new thesis and was successful), and five international recognitions were denied for formal reasons.\\
In the years 1882/1883 till 1912/1913, the Faculty of Philosophy of the German University in Prague awarded 395 doctorates in philosophy, six of which, i.e. 1.5\%, were in mathematics. There was no female among those who were awarded doctorates because even at the beginning of the 20$^{\text{th}}$ century, the German professors of mathematics held very conservative opinions about awarding doctorate degrees to women. In the years 1882/1883 and 1906/1907, two mathematicians applied for international recognition of their foreign doctorate diplomas: one was refused, the other was approved, although both diplomas were issued by the same German university (Erlangen), which made the two cases quite identical (they both graduated from a so-called real school, without proper graduation from a~classical gymnasium, which disqualified them as candidates for doctorate at a~university in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.\\
\par In the academic years 1912/1913--1919/1920, the Faculty of Philosophy of the German University in Prague awarded 230 doctorates. Only four candidates, including one female, defended the doctorate in mathematics, which is 1.7\%.
In the academic years 1920/1921--1938/1939, the Faculty of Science of the German University in Prague awarded 773 doctorates, including 25 doctorates, i.e. 3.2\%, in mathematics, including two females. One of the candidates however obtained the degree only in the second, remedial, procedure. The other two candidates failed because they did not submit their doctoral theses.
The 1930s, as Germany was becoming fascist and the German intelligentsia of Jewish origin or anti-fascist orientation was forced to emigrate, brought on an increase of number of applications for international recognition of diplomas and studies in foreign countries, shortening of obligatory studies, acceleration of PhD proceedings at the Faculty of Science of the German University in Prague. It is interesting that the German mathemati\-cians in Prague recommended, without any problems, to grant requests submitted by their regular as well as extramural students, which enabled them to complete successfully the doctoral procedure in a~shortened time. However -- at the same time -- the German mathematicians did not support international recognition of the diplomas already awarded. In the period 1920/1921--1938/1939, seven applications for international recognition were submitted: three of them were probably denied, three were approved, in one case an additional doctoral examination was ordered.
In the years 1939/1940--1944/1945, the Faculty Science of the German University in Prague award\-ed 88 doctorates, including four in mathematics, i.e. 4.5~\%. One applicant did not -- even at the third attempt -- pass a~subsidiary PhD examination in theoretical physics and the doctorate proceedings were officially stopped. Let us remark that there was no female among the candidates for doctorates in mathematics, which is not surprising when considering the Nazi conception of women's role in the society.
It may appear strange that the number of doctorates in mathematics award\-ed at the Faculty of Philosophy of the German University in Prague was less than two per cent, resp. at the Faculty of Science of the German University in Prague three to five per cent, notwithstanding the fact that mathematics was very important at that time and professors of mathematics did not lack quality and talented students. The explanation of this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon is relatively simple. The doctoral candidates in mathematics usually thought about an academic career, resp. career of a~university pedagogue. The corresponding positions at the Austro-Hungarian universities were however few since every greater university or technical university had two, or maximally three, positions of regular or extraordinary professors of mathematics, and one or maximally two, positions of regular or extraordinary professors of descriptive geometry. There did not exist any research institutions focused on mathematics and its classical applications, some quality doctors of mathematics found their employment in the financial sector (especially in insurance business), state administration (especially in national economy statistics), army (especially as teachers of mathematics) or at secondary schools, which however did not require a~doctoral degree.
The lower interest of the German-speaking doctoral candidates of mathematics in the German University in Prague may also have its source in the fact that in the 19$^{\text{th}}$ century, this university was not the only institution where a~candidate could submit a~doctoral thesis in mathematics in the German language and pass the PhD examinations in the German language.\footnote{In the Austrian Empire, resp. Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was possible to undergo the PhD examination with international recognition at universities in Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, Budapest, \v{C}ernovce (\v{C}ernovice, Czernowitz) and Kolozsv\'ar (Klausenberg, Cluj, Klu\v{z}). Especially Vienna was a~favourite destination of the Germans from the Czech lands. With very insignificant trouble of purely formal character, it was possible to obtain doctorates in Germany and France throughout the 19$^{\text{th}}$ century. The destination of our (German as well as Czech) mathematicians was usually G\"ottingen, Berlin, Munich or Hamburg, the destination of Czech mathematicians was also Paris or Strasburg.} Moreover, many mathematicians regarded Prague only as a~``provincial university,'' with only a~relatively small community of German mathematicians intending to find their employment rather outside the Czech region.
The increase of the number of doctoral candidates in mathematics at the German University in Prague after the year 1920 (when the new Czechoslovak constitution was proclaimed) was partly caused also by the fact that the Czechoslovak authorities did not automatically re\-cogni\-ze diplomas and academic degrees awarded by foreign schools and made the procedure of international recognition more strict, eventually required additional Czechoslovak state examinations. The candidates of the German nationality who formerly went to Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, G\"ottingen or Munich, now remained in Prague. The Faculty Science of the German University in Prague was a~relatively small, but significant European institute of natural sciences and pedagogy. The University was attractive for foreign students of Jewish religion and democratic opinions from Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Hungary and Poland and, starting from mid-1930s, also from Germany. This was partly due to the renown and professional achievements of some professors (e.g. L.~Berwald, R.~Carnap, C.I.~Cori, Ph.~Frank, A.~Kir\-pal, A.~Lampa, K.~L\"owner, A.~Naegle, G.A.~Pick, E.G.~Pringsheim, F.~Spina), relatively low school fees and cost of living, good accessibility of Prague, varied multicultural environment as well as political and religious liberty.
\subsection{\label{subs2.2}Doctorate degrees awarded in mathematics at Czech University in Prague in the years 1882 till 1945.\footnote{The analysis is based on the studies of various ``fonds" of the Archive of the Charles University in Prague.}}
From 1882 to 1939, the doctoral candidates at C.k.~Czech Charles-Ferdinand University, resp. Charles University, submitted 159 doctorate theses in mathematics (including twelve females, resp. eight foreigners),\footnote{The foreigners included six Russians, one Latvian and one Ukrainian (according to the present-day structure of Europe). In the students catalogues or PhD protocols, Russia (the Soviet Union in \cite{Bac[19]}) is given as the state of birth (or origin). They were all citizens of Russian nationality, who left Russia convulsed by a~civil war and political problems and settled down in the Czechoslovak Republic.} 150 doctorates were awarded. All the theses, except for two, were written in the Czech language.
In the years 1882/1883--1920/1921, the candidates at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Czech University, resp. Charles University in Prague\footnote{From 1882 to 1920, the university used its official name \textit{C.k.~\v{c}esk\'a Karlo-Ferdinandova univerzita v Praze}, starting from the year 1920, Charles University in Prague. Further on we will use the present-day standard name Charles University in Prague.} defended 1118 doctorates in philosophy, including 62 in mathematics, i.e. 5.5\%. 62 doctoral theses written in the Czech language were submitted, all of which were accepted and evaluated positively. Three of the candidates were absent from some part of the PhD examination, and as a consequence did not obtain the doctoral degree. The candidates usually took the main PhD examination in mathematics and a~subsidiary PhD examination in philosophy. All the 59 successful candidates underwent the complete doctoral procedure. One doctorate was obtained by a~woman. To complete the information, one doctorate degree was revoked after sixteen years based on a~decision of Czechoslovak court of justice because its holder committed a~deplorable crime.
In the years 1920/1921--1939/1940, the Faculty of Science of Charles University started the defence of 1088 doctorates in Natural Sciences, including 97 doctorates in mathematics, i.e. 8.9\%.\footnote{In the school-year 1920/1921, the newly established Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague started its educational activities. The first 25 doctoral candidates were still registered at the Faculty of Philosophy of Charles University. In the winter semester of the school-year 1939/1940, the Faculty of Science of Charles University started 9~doctorate procedures, however majority of them were completed only after the war. One of the doctoral procedures was in mathematics.} One doctorate procedure was stopped at the very beginning since the submitted doctoral thesis was not accepted. A~year later, the candidate submitted a~new thesis and was successful in a~new procedure. The candidates submitted 95 theses in Czech and two theses in French. Five candidates did not undergo the prescribed PhD examinations and did not obtain the degree (including one woman). The candidates usually took the main PhD examination in mathematics (mathematical analysis and algebra, geometry and algebra, geometry and mathematical analysis) and a~subsidiary PhD examination in philosophy of exact sciences\footnote{At the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague, one-hour subsidiary PhD examination in philosophy of exact sciences replaced the former examination in classical philosophy. This change enabled a~deeper interconnection of philosophy, history, logic, mathematics and natural sciences.} (experimental physics and analytical mechanics, in a~few cases).
The number of successfully accomplished doctoral procedures was 91, including eight women. Five of the candidates had to undergo some of the PhD examinations repeatedly (including two women). One candidate submitted his doctoral thesis in the spring of 1939 and in autumn of the same year he passed both PhD examinations -- however, he graduated only in summer of 1945. Six candidates submitted their theses by the year 1939, which were accepted and evaluated positively. The doctoral procedures started before the closure of the Czech universities and high schools, however, the candidates did not have enough time to pass all the required examinations. Their doctoral procedures were carried out as late as between 1945 and 1952.
From November of 1939 to the summer of 1945, Charles University did not award any doctorate in mathematics because the university was closed on the 17$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1939 by the Nazi occupiers. The university activities were resumed only after the liberation, starting with the extraordinary summer semester of 1945.
The number of doctoral procedures in mathematics at the Faculty of Philosophy was five per cent, at the Faculty of Science almost eight per cent. What was mentioned above with regard to the German University in Prague also applies to the Czech universities. One should however note that for the Czech doctoral candidates in mathematics, Prague was, till 1920, the only place where they could submit their doctoral theses in the Czech language and take the PhD examination in their mother tongue. After the year 1920, this possibility was extended to Brno. However, this did not result in a~decrease of interest in doctoral procedures held in Prague because, after the formation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the chances of the holders of doctorate degrees to find an employment increased
a~little. This was caused by the fact that the number of positions for professors, associate professors and assistants at the Czech universities increased (because new schools were founded, the number of the faculties of the Czech Technical University in Prague and the Czech Technical University in Brno increased), the number of positions for mathematical experts in state administration increased (new ministries, insurance institutions, banks, financial administration etc.) and the network of the Czech secondary and professional schools was expanded.
\subsection{\label{subs2.3} Doctorate degrees awarded in mathematics at Prague universities -- brief comparison.}
The proportion of all the doctorates awarded at the Czech Faculty of Philosophy and the German Faculty of Philosophy is $1118:625$, i.e. $1.8$; the proportion of the doctorates awarded in mathematics is $59:10$, i.e. $5.9$; the proportion of the doctorates awarded in mathematics to females is $1:1$.
%\smallskip
The proportion of all the doctorates awarded at the Czech Faculty of Science and the German Faculty of Science is $1088:773$, i.e. $1.4$; the proportion of the doctorates awarded in mathematics is $91:25$, i.e. $3.6$; the proportion of the doctorates awarded in mathematics to females is $8:3$, i.e. $2.7$. The data are compared in the tables below.
\smallskip
In the years 1882/1883 until 1944/1945, 2206 doctorates were defended at the Czech University in Prague, resp. at Charles University in Prague, and 1486 doctorates were defended at the German University in Prague, which means that Charles University in Prague awarded approximately $1.5$ time more doctorates than the German University in Prague. Comparing the numbers of doctorates awarded in mathematics in the same period we can see that Charles University awarded 150 doctorates in mathematics (including those started before 1939 but completed only after the war) whereas the German University in Prague awarded 39 doctorates (excluding international recognition). This means that Charles University awarded 4 times more doctorates in mathematics than the German University in Prague. Charles University in Prague had only one regular professor of mathematics until the beginning of the 20$^{\text{th}}$ century, whereas the German University in Prague had, from the start of its educational activities, two professors of mathematics, one regular and one extraordinary professor. It was only from the year 1903 that both universities had two professors of mathematics. Charles University in Prague had three professors of mathematics (Karel Petr (1868--1950), Jan Sobotka (1862--1931) and V\'aclav L\'aska (1862--1943)) from the year 1911, whereas the German University in Prague had usually two mathematicians (Georg Alexander Pick (1859--1942) and Gerhard Hermann Waldemar Kowalewski (1876--1950), resp. G.A.~Pick and Ludwig Berwald (1883--1942)) in the pre-war and inter-war period. In the 1930s, the German University in Prague had three professors of mathematics (L.~Berwald, Karl L\"owner (1893--1968) and Arthur Winternitz (1893--1961)). Charles University in Prague had more pedagogues with the right to supervise and evaluate the doctoral theses (Bohumil Byd\v{z}ovsk\'y (1880--1969), V\'aclav Hlavat\'y (1894--1969), Vojt\v{e}ch Jarn\'{\i}k (1897--1970), Vladim\'{\i}r Ko\v{r}\'{\i}nek (1899--1981), Milo\v{s} K\"ossler (1884--1961), V.~L\'aska, K.~Petr, Emil Schoenbaum (1882--1967)).
%\vskip1mm
The subjects of the doctoral theses in mathematics at the German University in Prague usually reflected more promptly and closely the new trends in mathematics (especially modern analysis, differential and an affine geometry) and they represented a higher level of expertise.\footnote{For more information see \cite{Bac[2]} and \cite{Bac[5]}. For more information of the mathematics at the Czech University in Prague see \cite{Bac[3]} and \cite{Bac[4]}.} Their authors obtained positions at prestigious foreign universities and reached considerable renown.\footnote{We can mention e.g. F.A.~Behrend, L.~Bers, A.~Erd\'elyi, P.~Kuhn, E.~Lammel, H.~L\"owig, K.~L\"owner, M.~Pinl and O.~Varga. Their careers and works are mentioned in \cite{Bac[2]} and \cite{Bac[5]}.} It was naturally due to the fact that approximately the same number of pedagogues educated a~smaller number of students and doctoral candidates.\footnote{For more information see \cite{Bac[2]} and \cite{Bac[5]}.}
%\smallskip
After Czechoslovakia was formed, the German University in Prague was not abolished but, on the contrary, it became a~recognized and respected state university with equal rights, which was not suppressed or oppressed or finan\-cially harmed by the new republic.\footnote{Let us mention that after the First World War the Imperial Russian University in Warsaw was polonized, the German university in \v{C}ernovce in Bukovina was abolished, the German university in Kolozsv\'ar was Hungarized, the German university in Dorpat (Jurjev, Tartu) was changed into an Estonian university and the German schools in Lvov were abolished.} In the post-war Europe divided into states con\-ceived on, more or less, nationality principle, it was in fact the only official, complete and recognized state university for the so-called national minority. The University retained this position and renown until the beginning of the World War~II.
%\smallskip
Let us note that the citizens of the German nationality were not discriminated in Czechoslovakia with regard to university studies. On the contrary, according the population census in February of 1921, 8.761 million people declared to be of Czechoslovak nationality, 3.123 million people of German nationality, 0.745 million people of Hungarian nationality, 0.461 million people of Russian nationality, 0.181 million people of Jewish nationality and 0.075 million people declared to be of Polish nationality. This means that the German population was 23.3\%. In Czechoslovakia of 1921, there existed three Czech (Czechoslovak) universities (Prague, Brno, Bratislava) and two Czech Technical Universities (Prague, Brno), one German university (Prague) and two German technical universities (Prague, Brno). This situation remained unchanged in Bohemia and Moravia until November of 1939.
%\medskip
\subsection{\label{subs2.4} Brief information on doctorates awarded at Charles University in Prague in the years 1945--1953.\footnote{The analysis is based on the studies of various ``fonds" of the Archive of the Charles University in Prague.}}
The history of the German University in Prague came to its definitive end on the 18$^{\text{th}}$ of October 1945, when President Edvard Bene\v{s} (1884--1948) issued
a~decree on abolition of all German universities and high schools in Czechoslovakia, retroactive from the 17$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1939. This day is symbolic because on the 17$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1939, all the Czech universities on the territory of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia were closed for the period of three years by a~decree issued by the Reich Protector Konstantin Hermann Karl, Freiherr von Neurath (1873--1956), however the top representatives of the German Reich did not intend to re-open the Czech universities). Nine students, representatives of students' movement were executed in Ruzyn\v{e}, almost 1100 students were deported to a~concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. The pedagogues were forced to take a leave, to retire or to work in the arms industry.
Almost immediately after the liberation, Charles University re-start\-ed its activities and regular education by opening an extraordinary summer semester of 1945 so that more than seven grades of secondary-school graduates could study. In the years 1945 till 1952, the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague started 1047 doctoral procedures, including 55 in mathematics (i.e. 5.2\%). 54 theses were submitted in Czech, one thesis was written in the Polish language. 53 Czech citizens, one Pole and one Bulgarian underwent doctoral procedure. The doctorate was awarded to 54 candidates, including five females (i.e. 9.3\%).
The above facts indicate that even after 1945, the number of doctorates awarded in mathematics to females did not significantly increase. More intense interest in studying mathematics, obtaining doctoral degree and academic career emerged only at the beginning of the 1960s.\footnote{The analysis is based on the studies of various ``fonds" of the Archive of the Charles University in Prague.}
\subsection{\label{subs2.5} Brief information on women's doctorates awarded in Prague in the years 1900--1945.}
In this paragraph, we try to give a~short analysis of the successful doctoral procedures of three women, all PhD female graduates in mathematics at the German University in Prague, and the successful doctoral procedures of eight women, all PhD female graduates in mathematics at Charles University in Prague, and one unsuccessful doctoral procedure are presented. The documents deposited in the Archive of Charles University in Prague, the Archive of the Czech Technical Univeristy in Prague and the National Archive of the Czech Republic indicate from what social environment these women came and give information on their cultural, intellectual and material background. They show us how their families and social events influenced them, how the women were motivated by these circumstances, how the women lived, what they dedicated themselves to, what they did, what problems they solved and what complicated their lives (formation and downfall of states, domicile and citizenship issues, availability of common citizenship documents, anti-Semitism, emigration, war, forced deportation to ghettos and concentration camps) etc. The documents could also show changes which took place in our society in the first half of the 20$^{\text{th}}$ century. They could open a~new view of the significance of nationality, state and domicile, entrepreneurial boom, changes of attitude towards the Jewish religion and changed attitude towards education, advent of economic crisis, view of household modernization, development of tourism and medical care etc.
The following section gives a~brief summary of doctoral procedures in mathematics, undergone in the years 1900 till 1945 (resp. 1952) by twelve women.\footnote{The analysis is based on the studies of various funds of the Archive of the Charles University in Prague, the Archive of the Czech Technical University in Prague and the National Archive of the Czech Republic (Prague).}
%\newpage
\section{Doctorates awarded at the German University in Prague.}
\textbf{Saly Ramler} (1894--1993) defended her PhD thesis in 1919 under the gui\-dance of Georg Alexander Pick and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Philosophy of German University in Prague.\footnote{Saly Ramler defended the PhD thesis titled \textit{Geometrische Darstellung und Einteilung der Affinit\"aten in der Ebene und in Raume Dreiecks- und Tetraeder\-inhalt} (reviewers G.A.~Pick and G.H.W.~Kowalewski). Her PhD thesis does not exist now. She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematics in November 1919. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy in December 1919. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Philosophy at the graduation ceremony on 11$^{\text{th}}$ December 1919.} Later, she married the famous Dutch-American mathematician Dirk Jan Struik (1894--2000).
%\smallskip
In 1974, D.J.~Struik remembered his first meeting with his future wife Saly and described her doctoral thesis. He wrote:
\begin{quote}
\dots in July 1923, I~married at Prague, in the ancient Town Hall with the medieval clock, Saly Ruth Ramler. She was a~PhD in mathematics of the University of Prague, where she had studied under G.~Pick and G.~Kowalewski. Her thesis was a~demonstration of the use of affine reflections in building the structure of affine geometry, a~new subject at the time. We had met the previous year at a~German mathematical congress. After marriage we settled in Delft.\footnote{D.J.~Struik: \textit{A letter from Dirk Struik}, in \cite{Bac[6]}, pp. XIII--XVII, the quotation is from the page~XIV.}\end{quote}
Let us note that Saly Ramler travelled with her husband to the Netherlands, then to Italy, Germany and France. In 1926, they immigrated to the USA, where D.J.~Struik obtained a~position as a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The motivation for their travel had a political background as it is shown in the following quotation:
\begin{quote}
\dots From 1924 to 1926, with Struik's Rockefeller Fellowship, he and his wife travelled to several other European countries and studied, met and collaborated with many of the great mathemati\-cians and scientists of the twentieth century, including Tullio Levi-Civita, Richard Courant and David Hilbert.
Nevertheless, by 1926, Struik found himself unemployed in Holland and with limited opportunities in Europe. As a~long-time mathematical and political friend of Struik, Lee Lorch of York University in Toronto, Canada, understood from him and wrote in an electronic correspondence to us, that Struik's ``political commitments and activities closed European opportunities.'' Eventually, however, Struik received two offers, one from Otto Schmidt to go to Moscow and the other from Norbert Wiener to visit MIT. It was a~hard choice for him: in the end, he decided to accept the teaching post from Samuel Stratton, the president of MIT.\footnote{See \cite{Bac[12]}, p.~43.}\end{quote}
%\smallskip
In the first decade after marriage, Saly Ramler Struik travelled with her husband all over Europe. She fascinated his colleagues with her elegance, education and knowledge. She was interested in mathematics and history of mathematics as we can see in the recollections of D.J.~Struik and Ch.~Davis: \begin{quote}Ruth, working with F.~Enriques, published an Italian edition of the tenth book of Euclid's Elements.\footnote{See D.J.~Struik: \textit{A~letter from Dirk Struik}, in \cite{Bac[6]}, pp. XIII--XVII, the quotation is from the page XIV. F.~Enriques published a modern Italian translation of Euclid's Elements named \textit{Gli Elementi d'Euclide e~la critica antica e~moderna. Libri I--IV}, Alberto Stock -- Editore, Roma, 1925, \textit{Gli Elementi d'Euclide e~la critica antica e~moderna. Libri V--IX, Libro X, Libri XI--XIII}, Nicola Zanichelli Editore, Bologna, 1930, 1932, 1936.}\end{quote}
\begin{quote}Dirk's love for the history of mathematics was reawakened when Ruth and he wrote a~joint article probing (but not solving) the question of whether A.L.~Cauchy, when he was in Prague (1833--1836), might have met the Prague mathematician Bernard Bolzano \dots\footnote{See \cite[p.~585]{Bac[7]}. Ch.~Davis discusses the article D.J.~Struik, R.~Struik: \textit{Cauchy and Bolzano in Prague}, Isis 11(1928), pp. 364--366. The article was also published in Publications of M.I.T. (2) 152(1929).}\end{quote}
%\smallskip
S.~Ramler Struik left mathematics as a~young woman, gave up her professional career and devoted herself to her husband and their daughters (Ruth Rebekka, Anne and Gwendolyn) althought it was a~very difficult decision for her as the following words show:
\begin{quote}While she was an accomplished mathematician, she was kept out of mathematics by illness for much of her adult life. She struggled with the tension between raising three daughters and wanting to do mathematics. She found it unfair that women cannot have a~career and a~family, and she resented and suffered from the discrimination bred out of the traditional expectation that a~married woman do nothing but attend to the family. However, in later years she became mathematically active again, attending meetings and publishing. The Kovalevskaya Fund at the Gauss School in Peru was endowed in her memory.\footnote{See http://www.tufts.edu/as/math/struik.html.}\end{quote}
%\smallskip
In 1977, S.~Ramler Struik published her new article titled \textit{Fl\"a\-chen\-gleich\-heit und Cavalierische Gleichheit von Dreiecken} \cite{AM1}, whose content is clearly characterized in the journal \textit{Zentralblatt f\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzge\-bie\-te}.\footnote{See https://www.zbmath.org/?q=ai:struik.s-r, \ZBL{0367.50004}.} Reviewer H.~Schaal appreciated the article in the following words:
\begin{quote}Zwei Dreiecke in der euklidischen Ebene, die von Geraden einer Pa\-ral\-lelen\-schar in jeweils l\"angengleichen Strecken ge\-schnitten werden, sind nach dem Cavalierischen Prinzip be\-kanntlich fl\"achengleich. Her wird gezeigt, da\ss\ auch folgende Umkehrung gilt: Je zwei fl\"achengleiche Drei\-ecke sind ``Ca\-va\-lierisch gleich", d. h. sie lassen sich in eine solche gegen\-sei\-ti\-ge Lage bewegen, da\ss\ sie von Geraden einer Pa\-ral\-le\-len\-schar in jeweils gleich lagen Strecken ge\-\mbox{schnitten} werden. Zu der daran anschlie\ss enden Betrachtung, da\ss\ zwei Drei\-ecke in dieser Lage durch eine Affinspiegelung in Richtung der Pa\-ral\-le\-len\-schar auseinander hervorgehen, sollte erg\"anzt warden, da\ss\ dies f\"ur gegenl\"aufig aufeinander bezogene Dreiecke gilt; werden die Dreiecke mit gleichem Umlaufsinn aufeinander bezogen, was ebenfalls m\"oglich ist, so gehen sie, nachdem sie in die genannte Lage gebracht warden, durch Scherung oder Translation in Richtung der Parallelenschar auseinander hervor.\end{quote}
O.~Bottema in Mathematical Reviews described Saly Ramler Struik's proof of Desargues' Theorem:
\begin{quote}Two polygons $P_1$, $P_2$ are defined to be Cavalieri-equal if there exists a~set of parallel lines $l$ with the following property: the two line segments which any line $l$ has in common with $P_1$ and $P_2$ have equal lengths. It then follows from Cavalieri's principle that $P_1$ and $P_2$ have the same area. The author proves in an elementary but ingenious way that two triangles $A_1A_2A_3$ and $B_1B_2B_3$ with the same area can be displaced so that the three lines $A_iB_i$ are parallel and the triangles are Cavalieri-equal. Moreover, it follows by means of Desargues' theorem that there is an equiaffine reflection which interchanges the two triangles.\footnote{See review MR0513833, available at the address http://www.ams. org/mathscinet.}\end{quote}
%\smallskip
It is interesting that in 1978, Oene Bottema\footnote{Oene Bottema (1901--1992) was a~Dutch mathematician who defended his PhD thesis named {\it Figuur van vier kruisende rechte lijnen} at the University in Leiden in 1927 under the guidance of a~geometer Willem van der Woude (1876--1974) and taught at the Technical University in Delft.} published the article titled \textit{Equi-affinities in three-dimensional space} in the journal of the University in Belgrade (\hspace{-1mm}\cite{AM2}; the quotation is from pp. 9--10), in which he quoted as its very inspiring source Saly Ruth Ramler's forgotten PhD thesis. In his introduction he wrote these words which realistically characterized Ramler's mathematical results:
\begin{quote}In the plane and in three-dimensional space the following theorem is well-known: any Euclidean displacement may be written as the product of two line reflections. It can be applied for instance to develop an elegant method to study three positions theory in Euclidean kinematics. The reflection has an analog in affine geometry. For the affine space such a~transformation $R(m;U)$ is defined as follows. Let a~line~$m$, the mirror, and a~plane~$V$, the direction plane, be given; $m$ and $V$ are not parallel. If $P$ is an arbitrary point, $V'$ the plane through $P$ parallel to $V$, $S$ its intersection with~$m$, then the point $P'$ corresponding to $P$ is on the ray $PS$, such that $PS + SP' = O$. Obviously $R^2 = I$, the unit transformation; furthermore $R$ is volume-preserving. The product $T = R_2R_1$ of two reflections is an affine, volume-preserving transformation, an equi-affinity. The question arises whether any equi-affinity can be factorized as the product of two reflections. RUTH STRUIK [1] studied this problem long ago by the methods of synthetic geometry. Her interesting and somewhat surprising results are: the property is valid for the analogous problem in the plane, but it does not hold in space. She added the positive theorem: an equi-affinity in space is always the product of three reflections. In the following note we consider, by analytical means, all possible products $T = R_2R_1$, with $R_i = (m_i; U_i)$, $i = 1, 2$ and study the properties of $T$. It will be seen that the set $T$ does not cover all equi-affinities, which confirms RUTH STRUIK'S statement.\end{quote}
\textbf{Hilda Falk} (1897--1942) defended her PhD thesis in 1921 under the guidance of G.A.~Pick and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of German University in Prague. She never married and became a~professor of mathematics and physics, later a~director of the famous secondary girl school in Prague~II. In 1942, she was murdered by fascists in the Jewish ghetto in Riga.\footnote{Hilda Falk defended the PhD thesis titled \textit{Beitr\"age zur \"aquiformen Fl\"achentheorie} (reviewers G.A.~Pick and Adalbert Prey (1876--1950), Prague German professor of physics). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematics and theoretical physics in April 1921. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy in May 1921. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 6$^{\text{th}}$ of May 1921. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{Josefine Mayer} born \textbf{Keller} (1904--?) defended her PhD thesis in 1934 under the guidance of Arthur Winternitz and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of German University in Prague. She wrote her PhD thesis as a~mother of two small children. Firstly she married Jan Jind\v{r}ich Frankl, secondly Ernst John and thirdly Alfred Maria Mayer, a famous Prague newspaper owner and publisher. During the WWII, they had to emigrate from Czechoslovakia to save their lives. She never had to work regularly because she came from a very rich Prague family. She took care of her two children, daughter Sofie (born 1925) and son Petr (1930–1938). We have no information on her personal fate in the USA.\footnote{Josefine Mayer defended the PhD thesis named \textit{Zur Axiomatik der ebenen Affinen der Geometrie} (reviewers A.~Winternitz and L.~Berwald). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematics in June 1933. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in natural philosophy in June 1933. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 30$^{\text{th}}$ of June 1933. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\section{Doctorates awarded at Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{Marie Fabi\'anov\'a} (1872--1943) defended her PhD thesis in 1901 under the guidance of Franti\v{s}ek Josef Studni\v{c}ka (1836--1903). She was the second woman who obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Czech University in Prague. She never married and became a~professor of mathematics, physics, geometry and German language, later a~director of a famous secondary girl school in Prague.\footnote{Marie Fabi\'anov\'a defended the PhD thesis named \textit{O~rozvoji dyperiodick\'ych funkc\'{\i} v~\v{r}ady a~produkty} (On the expansion of doubly periodic functions into series and products, reviewers F.J.~Studni\v{c}ka and F.~Kol\'a\v{c}ek). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematics and physics in December 1900. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy in November 1901. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Philosophy at the great graduation ceremony on 13$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1901. Only her PhD thesis is kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{Milu\v{s}e Ja\v{s}kov\'a} (1905--1975) defended her PhD thesis in 1928 under the guidance of Karel Petr and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. In 1929, she married a Russian engineer Vsevolod Gre\v{c}enko (1898--1948). She never worked regularly and took care of her only son Alexander (born 1930), who became a professor of machine engineering.\footnote{Milu\v{s}e Ja\v{s}kov\'a was a~daughter of Martin Ja\v{s}ek (1879--1945), a~famous Czech teacher of mathematics, physics, philosophy and propedeutics at the secondary girl school in Plisen. He was interested in the mathematical heritage of Bernard Bolzano (1781--1848). He partly catalogized his manuscripts deposited in Vienna and Prague. He discovered Bolzano's example of a~continuous and non-differentiable function, the so-called Bolzano's function. For relevant mathematical and historical commentaries see \cite{Bac[10]}. Martin Ja\v{s}ek for a long time collaborated with Saly Ramler, who helped him with reading and making a list of Bolzano's manuscripts desposited in Vienna and Prague.\\
Milu\v{s}e Ja\v{s}kov\'a defended the PhD thesis titled \textit{Rozvoj Euler-Maclaurin\accent23uv} (Euler-Maclaurin series, reviewers K.~Petr and B.~Byd\v{z}ovsk\'y). She tried to pass the first (main) oral examination in mathematical analysis and algebra in June 1928 but she did not achieve success. At the second attempt, she passed the main oral examination in December 1928. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in May 1928. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 14$^{\text{th}}$ of December 1928. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{Helena Navr\'atilov\'a} (1907--?) defended her PhD in 1932 under the guidance of Professor Emil Schoenbaum and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. Probably she became a professor of mathematics and gymnastics at the secondary school. We have no information about her personal fate.\footnote{Helena Navr\'atilov\'a defended the PhD thesis titled \textit{Z\'akon \v{r}\'{\i}dk\'ych zjev\accent23u a~jeho aplikace na kolektivy pojistn\'ych ud\'alost\'{\i}} (The law of rare events and its application to collections of insurance events, reviewers E.~Schoenbaum and M.~K\"ossler). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematical analysis and algebra in November 1932. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in December 1932. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 19$^{\text{th}}$ of December 1932. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{Jarmila \v{S}imerkov\'a} (1910--1975) defended her PhD thesis in 1933 under the guidance of Professor Milo\v{s} K\"ossler and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. In 1931, as a student, she married Bo\v{r}ivoj Iglauer (1901--?), a clerk at an insurance company in Prague. Later, she only took care of her family, her daughters Pavla (born 1932) and Jana (born 1936).\footnote{Jarmila \v{S}imerkov\'a defended the PhD thesis titled \textit{Zaveden\'{\i} libovoln\'ych funkc\'{\i} v~po\v{c}tu pravd\v{e}podobnosti} (Introduction of random functions in probability, reviewers E.~Schoenbaum and M.~K\"ossler). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematical analysis and algebra in June 1933. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in November 1933. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 24$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1933. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{V\v{e}ra \v{C}echov\'a} (1910--1990) defended her PhD thesis in 1933 under the guidance of the leadership of E.~Schoenbaum and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. Later, she worked as a~specialist in an insurance company in Prague. In 1946, she married her schoolmate Dr. Otta Fischer (1909--1975), a~Czechoslovak mathematician -- specialist in statistics. V\v{e}ra \v{C}echov\'a Fischerov\'a worked all her life as an insurance specialist and took care of her family, her son Jan (born 1951) who became a~specialist in statistics, an economist and important Czech politician.\footnote{V\v{e}ra \v{C}echov\'a defended the PhD thesis named \textit{Teorie risika} (Theorie of risk, reviewers E.~Schoenbaum and M.~K\"ossler). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematical analysis and algebra in June 1933. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in November 1933. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 15$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1933. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
\textbf{Ludmila Illingerov\'a} (1908--1974) defended her PhD thesis in 1934 under the guidance of V\'aclav Hlavat\'y and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. She became a~professor of mathematics, drawing and descriptive geometry at a secondary school. She taught in many places of the Czech lands as well as in Slovakia. In 1935, she married Alois M\v{e}stka (1904--?, a teacher at the industrical schools in many places of the Czech lands). During the war period, they separated. Ludmila Illingerov\'a-M\v{e}stkov\'a worked as a director of a secondary school in Prague and took care of her son Ivo (born 1936).\footnote{Ludmila Illingerov\'a defended the PhD thesis named \textit{Loxodromick\'a geometrie} (Loxodromical geometry, reviewers B.~Byd\v{z}ovsk\'y and V.~Hlavat\'y). She passed the first (main) oral examination in geometry and mathematical analysis in October 1934. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in October 1934. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 16$^{\text{th}}$ of November 1934. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
Ludmila Illingerov\'a published five articles. First of them, titled \textit{P\v{r}\'{\i}s\-p\v{e}vek k~neeuklidovsk\'e geometrii} [Contribution to the non-Euclidean geometry] \cite{AM3}, is her seminar thesis, which originated in the academic year 1931/1932 in V.~Hlavat\'y's special seminar for philosophy of mathematics. L.~Illingerov\'a explained the ``apparent" difference between Poincar\'e's and Klein's models of non-Euclidean geometry of the plane. V.~Hlavat\'y in the journal \textit{Jahrbuch \"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik} discussed her work in these words:
\begin{quote}In der Kleinschen Abbildung der hyperbolischen Ebene gehen drei Punkte vier hyperbolische Kreise. In der Poincar\'eschen Abbildung bildet sich jeder hyperbolische Kreis auf einen Kreis ab, so da\ss\ anscheinend drei Punkte in dieser Abbildung nur einen hyperbolischen Kreis bestimmen. Es wird gezeigt, da\ss\ auch in dieser Abbildung drei Punkte vier hyperbolische Kreise bestimmen.\footnote{See JFM 59.0553.02 or French abstract in the journal \textit{Zentralblatt f\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete}, \ZBL{0006.17806}.}\end{quote}
L.~Illingerov\'a participated in the Second Congress of Mathematicians of Slavic Countries, which took place in Prague in 1934. She gave a short lecture titled \textit{Loxodromick\'a geometrie} [Loxodromic geometry], whose German written abstract was published under the name \textit{Die lo\-xo\-dro\-mi\-sche Geometrie}.\footnote{Zpr\'avy o~druh\'em sjezdu matematik\accent23u zem\'{\i} slovansk\'ych, Praha 23.~a\v{z} 28. z\'a\v{r}\'{\i} 1934, \v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky [Report of the Second Congress of Mathematicians of Slavic Countries, Prague, September 23--28, 1934, Journal for Cultivation of Mathematics and Physics] 64(1935), pp. 193--194. It was also published as an independent offprint.}
One year later, she sent a short abstract of her PhD thesis \textit{Lo\-xo\-dro\-mic\-k\'a geometrie} to the Czech mathematical journal \textit{\v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky}. It was published under the same title \cite{AM4} and contained only some basic information on the content of Illingerov\'a's thesis. Publishing of such an abstract was necessary for the successful doctoral procedure.
\smallskip
In 1935, L.~Illingerov\'a published a very short mathematical note titled \textit{Pozn\'amka k~\v{c}l\'anku p.~Jos. Kope\v{c}n\'eho: \"Uber die Bestimmung der Summe der Winkel im ebenen Dreieck} [Remark on the article of Jos. Kope\v{c}n\'y \dots],\cite{AM5}, in which she proved that it was impossible to use hyperbolic and elliptic plane in the regular constructive proof of the theorem on the sum of angles in the plane triangle.\footnote{See review in \textit{Jahrbuch \"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik}, JMF 61.0967.03.}
Under the name Ludmila M\v{e}stkov\'a-Illingerov\'a, she published only one article, titled \textit{N\v{e}kter\'e znaky d\v{e}litelnosti} [Some criteria of divisibility],\cite{AM6}, in which she explained the criteria for divisibility by numbers 7 (resp. 49), 13, 17, 19, 37, 99 and 101 for students and secondary school teachers from the point of view of object teaching. She tried to explain and simplify the notes contained in the famous Czech textbook titled \textit{Aritmetika pro IV.~t\v{r}\'{\i}du st\v{r}edn\'{\i}ch \v{s}kol} [Textbook on Arithmetics for fourth class of secondary schools] written by B.~Byd\v{z}ovsk\'y, S.~Tepl\'y and F.~Vy\v{c}ichlo, \cite{AM7}.\footnote{The problem is on the page~7. The textbook was used in Czechoslovakia from the beginning of the 1930s until the end of the 1950s.}
\textbf{Ji\v{r}ina Frant\'{\i}kov\'a} (1914--2000) defended her PhD thesis in 1937 under the guidance of E.~Schoenbaum and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. She had the special graduation ceremony attended by the President of the Czechoslovak Republic. She worked as a~financial specialist in the Ministry of Finance (on the issues of the formation of the state budget, pensions and insurance) and collaborated with Professor E.~Schoenbaum as the scientific secretary of the journal \textit{Aktu\'arsk\'e v\v{e}dy. Pojistn\'a matematika. Ma\-te\-ma\-tic\-k\'a statistika}. In 1948, she married Franti\v{s}ek Chytil (1908--?), a~doctor of laws. She worked all her active life at the ministry and she also took care of her only son Ivo.\footnote{Ji\v{r}ina Frant\'{\i}kov\'a defended the PhD thesis named \textit{\'Urokov\'y probl\'em pro d\accent23uchody \v{z}ivotn\'{\i} s~malou pozn\'amkou pro pr\'emiov\'e reservy sm\'{\i}\v{s}en\'eho poji\v{s}t\v{e}n\'{\i}} (Interest income problem for life pensions with a~little note about premium reserves of mixed insurance, reviewers E.~Schoenbaum and M.~K\"ossler). She passed the first (main) oral examination in mathematical analysis and algebra in November 1936. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in December 1936. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the special presidential graduation ceremony on 7$^{\text{th}}$ of June 1937. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
In 1937, a short abstract of her PhD thesis was published in a journal titled Spisy vyd\'avan\'e p\v{r}\'{\i}rodov\v{e}deckou fakultou Karlovy university\footnote{Praha, 1937, no. 154, pp. 11--14.}, which specialised in publishing of articles of such kind.\footnote{For more information see the review in the journal \textit{Zentralblatt f\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete}, \ZBL{0018.15903}.}
Ji\v{r}ina Frant\'{\i}kov\'a published an article in English titled \textit{Some approximate formulas}, \cite{AM8}. It was reviewed by K.~L\"oer from G\"ottingen in the journal \textit{Jahrbuch \"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik}\footnote{See JFM 63.1122.04.} and by W.~Simonsen from Koda\v{n} (Copenhagen) in the journal \textit{Zentralblatt f\"ur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete}.\footnote{See \ZBL{0016.31601}.}
K. L\"oer discussed Frant\'{\i}kov\'a's results in these words:
\begin{quote}Verf. verendet den Mittelwertsatz der Integralrechnung, um den Barwert der Leibrente, der Todesfallversicherung und der Anwartschaft eines Aktiven auf Invalidenrente, alle von der Ordnung $k$, (z. B. $\stackrel{\leq}{a_x}\hskip-3pt {}^{(k)} = \frac{1}{k!} \int\limits_{0}^{\infty} t^k \cdot {}_tp_x\cdot v^tdt$) n\"aherungsweise zu berechnen. Den dabei auftretenden Zwischenwert be\-stimmt er dadurch, dass er den gleichen Versicherungsbarwert in zwei verschiedenen Formen darstellt.\end{quote}
\vskip2mm
W.~Simson wrote:
\begin{quote}Unter Benutzung des ersten Mittelwertsatzes der Integralrechnung: $\int_a^b\varphi(x)\psi(x)dx = \psi(\zeta)\int_a^b \varphi(x)dx$ $(\varphi(x) \geq 0$, $\psi(x)$ stetig und $\varphi(x)\psi(x)$ integrabel im Intervall $a \leq x \leq b$) wird zun\"achst die Ann\"aherungsformel: $\stackrel{\leq}{a_x}\hskip-3pt {}^{(k)} = \frac{1}{k!} n_k \dots n_1 \cdot \overline{a}_x$ unter der Voraussetzung bewiesen, da\ss\ $\overline{a}_{x + t}$ f\"ur $0\leq t \leq \infty$ ann\"ahernd linear ist; $n_{\nu} (\nu = 1, \dots, k)$ ist mittels $n_{\nu} = \nu
\overline{a}_{x + n_{\nu}}$ zu bestimmen. -- Die Methode wird demn\"achst in analoger Weise auf die Barwerte $\stackrel{\leq}{A_x}\hskip-3pt{}^{(k)}$ und $\stackrel{\leq}{a_x}\hskip-3pt{}^{i(k)}$ angewandt.\end{quote}
\textbf{Libu\v{s}e Ku\v{c}erov\'a} (1902--1987) started her PhD procedure in 1937 under the guidance of V.~Hlavat\'y. Despite many problems during the WWII and post-war changes in the Czechoslovak society, she successfully finished her procedure in 1952 and obtained her PhD degree at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. She was a~teacher at secondary schools. She taught mathematics, drawing and descriptive geometry in many places of the Czech lands. In 1943, she married an engineer Josef Tuh\'a\v{c}ek (1903--?), her school-mate from the Czech Technical Univeristy in Prague, who became an officer of the Czechoslovak army. They had no children.\footnote{Libu\v{s}e Ku\v{c}erov\'a defended the PhD thesis titled \textit{Geometrie \v{c}tyrrozm\v{e}rn\'eho Minkowskiho prostoru $M_4$ v~souvislosti s~trojrozm\v{e}rnou cyklografi\'{\i}} (Geometry of the four-dimensional Minkowski's space $M_4$ in the connection with the three-dimensional cyclography, reviewers V.~Hlavat\'y and B.~Byd\v{z}ovsk\'y). She tried to pass the first (main) oral examination in geometry and mathematical analysis in January 1951 (i.e., 14 years after finishing her PhD thesis, resp. 25 years after finishing her studies at the university). She did not achieve success. Secondly, she passed the main oral examination in June 1952. She underwent the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in March 1952. Let us note that she had to pass her subsidiary oral examination according to the ``new" philosophy of the communist ideology. She obtained her Doctorate Degree of Nature Sciences at the graduation ceremony on 28$^{\text{th}}$ of March 1952. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
L.~Ku\v{c}erov\'a wrote three articles (two short notes and one short abstract from her PhD thesis). In 1933, she published her note titled \textit{Pozn\'amka ke Cliffordov\'ym rovnob\v{e}\v{z}k\'am} [Remark on Clifford's parallels], \cite{AM9}. To characterize it, we can use the words of V.~Hlavat\'y,\footnote{See \textit{Jahrbuch \"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik}, JFM 59.0554.01.} who was Ku\v{c}erov\'a's teacher, scientific father and supervisor of her PhD thesis:
\begin{quote}In dem uneigentlichen dreidimensionalen elliptischen Raume des vierdimensionalen euklidischen Raumes $\Bbb R_4$ denkt man sich die Clifford'sche orthogonale Fl\"ache. Je zwei Geraden desselben Systems auf dieser Fl\"ache f\"uhren auf Ebenenpaare (des $\Bbb R_4$) mit gleichen Extremalwinkeln.
\end{quote}
We note that L.~Ku\v{c}erov\'a got interested in the problems of the four-dimensional geometry under the beneficial and strong influence of \linebreak V.~Hlavat\'y.
She studied a similar problem in her article titled \textit{Poz\-n\'amka k stej\-no\-\'uhl\'ym rovin\'am \v{c}ty\v{r}ozm\v{e}rn\'eho prostoru} [A remark on isocline planes in four-dimensional spaces], \cite{AM10}. She took her inspiration from many foreign as well as Czech monographs and articles.\footnote{For example she quoted the following works: H.~de Vries: \textit{Die Lehre von der Zentralprojektion im vierdimensionalen Raume} (1905), W.~Vogt: \textit{Synthetische Theorie der Cliffordschen Parallelen und der linearen Linien\"orter des elliptischen Raumes} (1909), R.~Bonola: \textit{Die nichteuklidische Geometrie -- historisch-kritische Darstellung ihrer Entwicklung} (1919), H.~Liebmann: \textit{Nichteuklidische Geometrie} (1923), L.~Bianchi: \textit{Lezioni di Geometria diferenziale}, volume~II (1924), F.~Klein: \textit{Vorlesungen \"uber nichteuklidische Geometrie} (bearbeitet von W.~Rosemann, 1928), V.~Jarol\'{\i}mek: \textit{Z\'akladov\'e geometrie polohy v~rovin\v{e} a~v~prostoru} (volume I and III, 1908 and 1914), Ed.~Weyr: \textit{Projetivn\'a geometrie z\'akladn\'ych \'utvar\accent23u prvn\'{\i}ho \v{r}\'adu} (1898), V.~Hlavat\'y: \textit{\'Uvod do neeukleidovsk\'e geometrie} (1926) and F.~Kade\v{r}\'avek, J.~Kl\'{\i}ma, J.~Kounovsk\'y: \textit{Deskriptivn\'{\i} geometrie} (volume II, 1932), J.~Kl\'{\i}ma: \textit{K~ur\v{c}en\'{\i} \'uhlu dvou rovin v~prostoru \v{c}ty\v{r}rozm\v{e}rn\'em a~n\v{e}kter\'e \'ulohy s~t\'{\i}m souvis\'{\i}c\'{\i}}, \v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky 62(1933), pp. 132--139.} Her knowledge of the classical as well as modern mathematical literature was excellent. We also note that all books were available in the Prague library of the Jednota \v{c}eskoslovensk\'ych matematik\accent23u a~fyzik\accent23u (Union of Czechoslovak mathematicians and physicists), which still exists as a~part of the Library of the Mathematical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences. For more information see the review published in the journal \textit{Jahrbuch \"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik}, JFM 61.1383.13.
The last known mathematical work of Ku\v{c}erov\'a is titled \textit{La g\'eom\'etrie de l'espace \`a quatre dimensions de Minkowski en connexion avec la cyclographie \`a trois dimensions. Laboratoire pour la philosophie des ma\-th\'e\-ma\-ti\-ques}, \cite{AM11}. It is a~French-language abstract of her PhD thesis. See \textit{Jahrbuch \"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik}, JFM 64.0661.05.
\textbf{V\v{e}ra Kofr\'ankov\'a} (1909--1996) started her PhD thesis in 1937 under the guidance of V.~Hlavat\'y, but she never finished her major examination in mathematics. She married a Czech mathematician Zden\v{e}k P\'{\i}rko (1909--1983), her school-mate. Later they divorced. V.~Kofr\'ankov\'a worked as a~professor at secondary schools in Prague. She taught mathematics, drawing and descriptive geometry. During all her life she took care of her only daughter Ivana (born 1945), who became a~gynecologist.\footnote{V\v{e}ra Kofr\'ankov\'a wrote the PhD thesis titled \textit{K\v{r}ivky, jejich\v{z} polom\v{e}r k\v{r}ivosti je line\'arn\'{\i} kombinac\'{\i} polom\v{e}r\accent23u k\v{r}ivosti kone\v{c}n\'eho po\v{c}tu dan\'ych k\v{r}ivek, aplikace} (Curves whose radius of curvature is a~linear combination of the radii of curvature of finite numbers of curves, applications, reviewers V.~Hlavat\'y and B.~Byd\v{z}ovsk\'y). A~very short abstract of her thesis was published in the journal titled Spisy vyd\'avan\'e p\v{r}\'{\i}rodov\v{e}deckou fakultou Karlovy university (Praha, 1936, no. 150, pp. 33--37). She passed only the second (subsidiary) oral examination in philosophy of exact sciences in May 1937. Her PhD thesis is not kept in the Archive of Charles University in Prague.}
%\bigskip
$$\ast \qquad \ast \qquad \ast \qquad \ast \qquad \ast$$
All the female doctoral candidates were, at that time, Czechoslovak citizens\footnote{Because of the origin of her parents, one female candidate had to apply for Czechoslovak citizenship in the administrative procedure.} of Czech or German nationality. The candidates of Czech nationality studied exclusively at a~Czech university, namely Charles University in Prague, whereas the candidates of German nationality studied exclusively at a~German university, namely German University in Prague.
\smallskip
All the female candidates, at the time of their studies, professed a~religion, as was more or less usual in the Czech lands. All the German candidates were of Jewish religion, one of them however changed her religion during her studies, even twice. The Czech female candidates were of Roman-Catholic religion, one of them converted to the Czech Brethren Church during her studies, and one of them left the Roman-Catholic Church in the 1950s.
\smallskip
The majority of the female candidates (except for one) descended from so\-cial\-ly well-situated, the so-called ``middle-class" families, which valued education and supported educational, cultural, athletic and other general activities pursued by their daughters. Their fathers descended mainly from socially lower but finan\-cial\-ly solid levels (farm or manor administrators, farmers, craftsmen, lower school teachers). This provided the female candidates with financial means, but did not give them sufficient intellectual background.
\begin{table}[h!]%Table 1
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|}\hline
Father's profession & German female & Czech female \\
& doctors & doctors \\ \hline \hline
secondary school teacher & 0 & 3 \\ \hline
engineer & 0&2 \\ \hline
clerk & 0&2 \\ \hline
physician & 0 & 1\\ \hline
lawyer & 1 & 0 \\ \hline
municipal school teacher & 0 & 1\\ \hline
entrepreneur & 1 & 0 \\ \hline
retailer & 1 & 0\\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}\vspace{-3ex}
\caption{\small Social background of the candidates.}
\end{table}
The German doctoral candidates studied, at various times, at the same German gymnasium for girls in Prague~II. The Czech candidates studied at Czech secondary schools (real gymnasiums, real reformed gymnasiums and real schools). Only the first Czech doctoral candidate studied at the time when the schools for girls did not have the same rights as the schools for boys and that is why she had to undergo an additional graduation examination at the classical gymnasium for boys in \v{S}t\v{e}p\'ansk\'a Street in Prague. None of the candidates studied at a~classical gymnasium, which emphasized Latin, Greek, history and geography and which was usually preferred by students of humanistic subjects.
\begin{table}[h!]%Table 2
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|}\hline
High school & German female &Czech female\\
& doctors & doctors \\ \hline\hline
German gymnasium for girls & 3 & 0 \\ \hline
Czech real school & 0&3 \\ \hline
Czech real gymnasium for girls & 0&2 \\ \hline
Czech reformed real gymnasium for girls & 0 & 2 \\ \hline
Minerva school for girls (``Kr\'asnohorsk\'a") & 0 & 2 \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}\vspace{-3ex}
\caption{\small High-school education of candidates.}
\end{table}
Another matter of interest is the duration of the studies of individual female doctoral candidates in mathematics. The average duration of the studies was nine semesters, which was in accordance with the requirement of that time, since the minimum duration of doctoral studies was prescribed to be eight semesters of university studies. The shortest duration of university studies of a~candidate was five semesters, the longest duration was fourteen semesters. If we include also the duration of the studies of the Czech candidates in a technical school, resp. the duration of the studies of the German candidates abroad, the shortest duration of their studies was nine semesters, whereas the longest duration was twenty-two semesters. It is also a~point of interest that in particular the Czech candidates studied not only mathematics, but also modern foreign languages (French, Eng\-lish, and Italian), history, philosophy and arts. Even physical training was not omitted. The scope of their interests was very wide.
All the German female doctoral candidates properly submitted their doctoral theses, which were accepted and were successful right at the first defence of both PhD examinations. Two of the Czech candidates failed at the first attempt at the main PhD examination in mathematics, however, they were successful at the remedial examination. One of the Czech candidates missed the main PhD examination in mathematics and did not obtain the doctorate. All the German and Czech candidates underwent an examination in philosophy, later changed to philosophy of exact sciences, within the framework of the subsidiary PhD examination.
%\bigskip
The majority of the female doctoral candidates in mathematics (except for one) submitted their doctoral thesis, passed both PhD examinations and obtai\-ned doctorate within, at the latest, two years after the completion of their studies, most often already in the last year of their studies. This means that they did not prolong their studies, did not postpone submission of their theses and their examinations as is usual nowadays. Let us complete the information with the fact that many of them, apart from doctoral procedure, simultaneously underwent also the demanding examinations of teaching proficiency (two of the three German female doctors,\footnote{Both German doctoral candidates in mathematics passed examinations of teaching proficiency for the subject mathematics -- physics.} six of the nine Czech female doctors\footnote{Four Czech doctoral candidates in mathematics passed the examination of teaching proficiency for the subject mathematics
-- descriptive geometry, one candidate for mathematics -- physics, and one for mathematics -- physical training.}).
%\pagebreak
\begin{table}[h!]%Table 3
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|}\hline
Number of semesters & German female & Czech female\\
of university studies & doctors & doctors \\ \hline\hline
five & 0 & 1\,${}^a$ \\ \hline
six & 0 & 2\,${}^b$ \\ \hline
seven & 0 & 0 \\ \hline
eight & 0 & 2\,${}^c$ \cr \hline
nine & 1 & 1\,${}^\text{d}$\cr \hline
ten & 1 & 2\,${}^e$\cr \hline
eleven & 0 & 0 \cr \hline
twelve & 0 & 0\cr \hline
thirteen & 1\,${}^f$ & 0\cr \hline
fourteen & 0 & 1\,${}^\text{g}$\cr
\hline\hline
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize
${}^\text{a}$ At the same time, the candidate also studied four semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.}\\
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize ${}^\text{b}$ Mostly at the same time, both the candidates also studied four semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.}\\
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize ${}^\text{c}$ One candidate also studied two semesters at University in Vienna.}\\
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize ${}^\text{d}$ At the same time, the candidate also studied eight semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.}\\
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize ${}^\text{e}$ One candidate also studied four semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague, the other also studied six semesters at the same school.}\\
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize ${}^f$ The candidate probably also studied two semesters at University in Leipzig.}\\
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize ${}^g$ Mostly at the same time, the candidate also studied eight semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.}
\end{tabular}
\end{center}\vspace{-3ex}
\caption{\small Duration of the studies of individual female doctoral candidates in mathematics.}
\end{table}
%\smallskip
%\hskip5cm\textbf{-- - -- -- --}
%\bigskip
%\multicolumn{3}{l}{ \footnotesize
%${}^\text{a}$ At the same time, the candidate also studied four semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.\\
%${}^\text{b}$ Mostly at the same time, both the candidates also studied four semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.\\
%${}^\text{c}$ One candidate also studied two semesters at University in Vienna. ${}^\text{d}$ At the same time, the candidate also studied eight semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague. ${}^\text{e}$ One candidate also studied four semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague, the other also studied six semesters at the same school.\\
%${}^f$ The candidate probably also studied two semesters at University in Leipzig.\\
%${}^g$ Mostly at the same time, the candidate also studied eight semesters at Czech Technical University in Prague.}
\begin{table}[h!]%Table 4
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|}\hline
Number of years after accomplishment & German female & Czech female \\
of the studies till the graduation &doctors & doctors\\ \hline
0 year$^a$ & 2 & 5\\ \hline
1 year & 0 & 2 \\ \hline
2 years & 1&0 \\ \hline
25 years & 0&1 \\ \hline
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize
${}^\text{a}$ The zero for the years indicates that the candidate submitted her doctoral thesis in the last year of the studies, passed both the PhD examinations and her doctoral graduation took place in the same calendar year.}
\end{tabular}
\end{center}\vspace{-3ex}
\caption{\small Duration of studies.}
\end{table}
%
%\hskip5cm \textbf{-- -- -- -- --}
%\bigskip
The first doctorate was awarded to a~Czech candidate already in the year 1900. Afterwards, however, there was a~pause of almost thirty years at Charles University (i.e. Czech University), whose reasons are unknown. Further Czech female doctors in mathematics appeared as late as in the late 1920s and espe\-cially in the first half of the 1930s. The Czech candidates of the 1930s probably knew each other, studied at the same university or technical university,\footnote{Four of the nine Czech candidates studied insurance mathematics at the Czech Technical University in Prague, the other three candidates studied ``a course for future teachers of descriptive geometry.'' Let us mention that the study of insurance mathematics was, in the 1920s and 1930s, relatively popular among women because it enabled them to get prepared for many professions (e.g. insurance technician, statistician, clerk in a~bank, insurance house, pension funds, financial administration, accounting firm). The popularity of the course was enhanced by its duration, which was only two years.} chose the same lectures and optional seminars. Two candidates knew each other already at the time of their secondary school studies because they studied at the same secondary school for girls in Pilsen. One of the female candidates studied at the school where the first Czech female doctor in mathematics worked as a~secondary school professor and headmistress.
\smallskip
The first doctorate in mathematics at the German University in Prague was awarded to a~woman as late as in 1919, i.e. almost twenty years after the first doctorate in mathematics was awarded at the Czech University. The second doctorate in mathematics was awarded in 1921 and the third one in 1934.
\bigskip
\begin{table}[h!]%Table 5
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|}\hline
Year when doctorate was awarded & German female & Czech female \\ \hline \hline
1900 & 0 & 1\\ \hline
1919 & 1 & 0 \\ \hline
1921 & 1&0 \\ \hline
1928 & 0&1 \\ \hline
1932 & 0 & 1 \\ \hline
1933 & 0 & 2\\ \hline
1934 & 1 & 1 \\ \hline
1936 & 0 & 1 \\ \hline
1952$^a$ & 0 & 1\\ \hline
\multicolumn{3}{p{.9\textwidth}}{\footnotesize
${}^\text{a}$ The last candidate did submit her doctoral thesis already in 1937, but she took the PhD examinations as late as the early 1950s.}\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}\vspace{-3ex}
\caption{\small Dates of awarding of doctoral degrees.}
\end{table}
%\hskip5cm\textbf{-- -- -- -- --}
%
%\medskip
Let us finish by giving a~summary of occupations that the female doctors and doctoral candidates in mathematics pursued after the accomplishment of their doctoral procedures. It is no surprise that almost half of them worked as secondary school professors (five out of twelve), a~quater of them became as housewives (three out of twelve), one of them was a housewife and worked as a~mathematician only occasionally, one of them worked, all her life, at the Ministry of Finances, one of them worked, all her life, at the insurance company in Prague. Occupation of one of the female doctors could not be ascertained; most probably, she worked as a~secondary school professor.
%\medskip
$$\ast \qquad \ast \qquad \ast \qquad \ast \qquad \ast$$
Various archives and library collections were investigated for three years (e.g. Archive of Charles University in Prague, Archive of the Czech Technical University in Prague, National Archive of the Czech Republic, Archive of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague City Archive, State Regional Archive in Pilsen, State Regional Archive in Litom\v{e}\v{r}ice, State Regional Archive in Z\'amrsk, Authority of the Municipal District of Prague~I, Municipal Authority in N\'am\v{e}\v{s}\v{t} nad Oslavou, National Conservation Fund of the Czech Republic, Jewish Museum in Prague, Administration of Prague Cemeteries (Ol\v{s}any, Vinohrady, Malvazinky, Bubene\v{c}), National Library of the Czech Republic, Basic Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Library of the Mathematical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic). I~am grateful to colleagues at these institutions for their support and assistance in providing archival materials and literature.
Various other materials were gathered. It is interesting that it was possible to find fewer sources on studies of the German candidates, but considerably more sources of information for a~deep analysis of their careers and lives. This is due to the fact that the official materials of German schools and institu\-tions were, in the past, more liable to discarding and destruction owing to the political development than the materials of the Czech ones. On the other hand, the personal materials of the German candidates in the National Archives of the Czech Republic were better preserved and accessible because they were not classified as so-called ``living,'' respectively ``unprocessed" or ``inaccessible" sources. The lives of the Czech doctoral candidates in mathematics could be reconstructed only partially, thanks to the willingness of their direct relatives. Searching for them was demanding and resembled rather a~detective story.\footnote{More information about the complicated lives and sad war fates, about families and professional activities of the first eleven female doctors and one doctoral candidate in mathematics will be available in the book M.~Be\v{c}v\'a\v{r}ov\'a: \textit{Female doctors in mathematics at the universities in Prague (a~brief probe in the personal fates)}, which is in preparation.}
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\bibitem{Bac[6]} R.S. Cohen, J.J. Stachel, M.W. Wartofsky (red.), \textit{For Dirk Struik. Scientific, historical and political essays in honor of Dirk J. Struik}, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, XV, Synthese Library, 61, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht 1974, \ZBL{0287.00007}, \MR{0774247}.
\bibitem{Bac[7]} Ch. Davis, J. Tattersall, J. Richards, T. Banchoff, \textit{Dirk Jan Struik (1894--2000)}, ,,Notices of the AMS'', June/July, 48 (2001), 584--589, \ZBL{0999.01026}, \MR{1834353} (2002e:01039).
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\bibitem{Bac[8]} J. Green, J. LaDuke, \textit{Pioneering women in American mathematics. The pre-1940 PhD's}, History of Mathematics, 34. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI; London Mathematical Society, London 2009, \ZBL{1180.01002}, \MR{2464022}.
\bibitem{Bac[9]} P. Horská, \textit{Die deutschen Frauenvereine in B\"ohmen},
,,Germanoslavica'' 2 (7) 1995, no. 1, 117--121.
\bibitem{Bac[10]} M. Hykšová, \textit{Karel Rychlík (1885--1968)}, Dějiny Matematiky/History of Mathematics, 22, Prometheus, Prague 2003, \ZBL{1160.01323}, \MR{2110226}.
\bibitem{AM3} L. Illingerov\'a, \textit{P\v{r}\'{\i}sp\v{e}vek k~neeuklidovsk\'e geometrii} [Contribution to the non-Euclidean geometry], ,,\v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky'' 62 (1933), 154--163, \ZBL{0006.17806}.
\bibitem{AM4} L. Illingerov\'a, \textit{Loxodromick\'a geometrie (V\'ytah z~disertace)}, ,,\v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky'' 65 (1936), D6--D8.
\bibitem{AM5} L. Illingerov\'a, \textit{Pozn\'amka k~\v{c}l\'anku p.~Jos. Kope\v{c}n\'eho: \"Uber die Bestimmung der Summe der Winkel im ebenen Dreieck} [Remark on the article of Jos. Kope\v{c}n\'y \dots], ,,\v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky'' 64 (1935), D133--D134, \ZBL{61.0967.03}.
\bibitem{Bac[11]} Z.~Kotzianov\'a, \textit{Spolek Vesna v~Brn\v{e} v letech 1870--1918 a~jeho v\'yznam pro rozvoj \v{c}esk\'e n\'arodn\'{\i} kultury} [Vesna Association in Brno in the Years 1870--1918 and its Importance for Development of the Czech National Culture], [rozprawa doktorska], FF UJEP, Brno 1989.%, 142 pages (Czech).
\bibitem{AM9} L. Ku\v cerov\'a, \textit{Pozn\'amka ke Cliffordov\'ym rovnob\v{e}\v{z}k\'am} [Remark on Clifford's parallels], ,,\v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky'' 62 (1933), 231--232, \ZBL{59.0554.01}.
\bibitem{AM10} L. Ku\v cerov\'a, \textit{Poz\-n\'amka k stejno\'uhl\'ym rovin\'am \v{c}ty\v{r}ozm\v{e}rn\'eho prostoru} [A~remark on isocline planes in four-dimensional spaces], ,,\v{C}asopis pro p\v{e}stov\'an\'{\i} matematiky a~fysiky'' 65 (1936), D9--D13, \ZBL{61.1383.13}.
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\bibitem{AM1} S. R. Struik, \textit{Fl\"achengleichheit und Cavalierische Gleichheit von Dreiecken}, ,,Elemente der Mathematik. Zeitschrift zur Pflege der Mathematik und zur F\"orderung des mathematisch-physikalischen Unterrichts'' 32 (1977), no. 6, 137--143, \ZBL{0367.50004}, \MR{0513833} (58 \#23972).
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\end{thebibliography}
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\begin{center}
{\bf Kobiety i matematyka na uniwersytetach w Pradze\\ w I po\l owie XX wieku}\\[1.5ex]
\href{\repo/803}{Martina Bečvářová}
\end{center}
%
\begin{abstractPL} Niniejsze opracowanie poświęcone jest dwunastu kobietom, które przygotowywały się do doktoratów z matematyki na Wydziale Filozoficznym Czeskiego Uniwersytetu w Pradze w latach 1882--1920 i 1921--1945 (noszącego nazwę Uniwersytetu Karola w tym późniejszym okresie), jak również na Wydziale Nauk Przyrodniczych Niemieckiego Uniwersytetu w Pradze w latach 1882--1945. W pierwszej części artykułu przedstawiono krótkie tło historyczne o studiach kobiet na wyższych uczelniach na ziemiach czeskich i statystykę przewodów doktorskich w obu praskich uniwersytetach dla lepszego zrozumienia sytuacji dotyczącej przewodów doktorskich kobiet. W drugiej części artykułu zaprezentowano zakończone pomyślnie przewody w zakresie matematyki trzech kobiet na Uniwersytecie niemieckim w Pradze oraz osiem przewodów na Uniwersytecie Karola, a także jeden przewód, który nie zakończył się obroną.
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\begin{abstract}
This article is devoted to the inception and formation in Russia of the History of Mathematics as a separate science. Its elements began intensively emerging in the epoch of Peter the Great and have undergone several development stages. This work outlines five stages undergone by Russian scientists molding elements of studies in the history of mathematics into a science with its own subject, goals, and methods. The purpose of this article is to analyse the first one, i.e. the stage of historical and scientific translations. We have chronologically analysed two types of translations in this work (translations of mathematical works of early Greeks and translations of West European works devoted to the history of mathematics) and briefly looked at translators’ personalia which are relatively unknown in literature devoted to the history of mathematics.
\end{abstract}
\section{Introduction}
In Russia, the history of mathematics began to evolve in the $18^{th}$ century and, being developed by numerous Russian scientists in the course of two centuries, moulded in the $20^{th}$ century into a separate science which had its own subject, goals, and methods. The following stages can be distinguished in the course of its evolution:
\begin{itemize}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item accumulating information on the history of the science by translating works of ancient scientists and western classical authors;
\item accumulating biographical and bibliographical materials in works of Russian scientists and teachers;
\item forming a tradition in the works of Russian mathematicians to have their mathematical research studies accompanied by detailed journeys into the history of the issue at hand;
\item publishing articles and works of Russian authors devoted to the history of various areas of mathematics or its individual issues;
\item emerging of national seminal works of general nature in history, philosophy, and methodology of mathematics.
\end{itemize}
It should be noted that these emergence and development stages in the history of mathematics in Russia were for the most part not time-spaced. They went together, reciprocally affecting one another. The goal of this article is to analyse the first stage in the evolvement of the history of mathematics in Russia, i.e. the \textbf{stage of translating works devoted to the history of the science.}
\section{The first Russian translations of Euclid}
It is generally acknowledged that in Europe, the history of mathematics began moulding into a separate area of research in 1758, when the \textit{History of Mathematics} by Jean-Étienne Montucla (1725--1799) appeared in two volumes. At that time, Russia was only beginning to rapidly develop sciences after the reforms of Peter the Great. Those were mostly natural sciences closely associated with the country’s real-life needs. There were no works of local scientists in the history of mathematics as yet. However, interest to this science began to be felt in this particular \textit{age of enlightenment} and consisted in a large number of translated memoirs of western authors devoted to the mathematics by ancient scientists, mainly to Euclid’s and Archimedes’ works.
In his research devoted to Russian translations of The Elements, K.A. Rybnikov wrote that \textit{“… Euclide -- “brilliant Clidos" -- was first mentioned in manuscripts of the $17^{th}$ century, which date back to the early $16^{th}$ century. However, until the era of Peter the Great, one would not come across a manuscript with a translation of The Elements or any revision thereof.”} \cite[p.~318]{NL1Ryb1941:Nachal}\footnote{v. \citeauthor{NL1Ryb1941:Nachal}(\citeyear{NL1Ryb1941:Nachal})}
Rapidly growing St. Petersburg quickly became the venue for commercial, military diplomatic, confessional, and scientific contacts with representatives from other empires. There was a lot of various folks including translators on the staff of the Main Admiralty (founded by Peter I in 1704, built in the reign of Anna Ioannovna in 1734--1738) and Academy of Sciences (founded by order of Peter I in 1724). One of Peter’s orders read as follows:
\textit{“We badly need translators to translate books, especially art books,…~. And art includes: Mathematical art at least to Spherical Triangles, Mechanical, Surgical, Architectural, Civilis, Anatomical, Botanical, Military, Hydraulics, and so on and so forth.”} (v. \cite[p.~215]{NL2Dri2015:deGrote}).
Numerous foreigners, which were invited to work for the shipyard, the Academy and University affiliated therewith, could not speak Russian at all or spoke it badly. Therefore, when discussing documents related to opening of the Academy (13 January 1724), Peter I wrote an adscript in the margin of Schumacher’s and Blumentrost’s project in his own hand as follows: \textit{“Two more Slovenian men must be added, so they could teach Russians more conveniently.”} \cite[p.~434]{NL3Ost1958:HAN}\footnote{See \citeauthor{NL3Ost1958:HAN}(\citeyear{NL3Ost1958:HAN})}. Furthermore, he clearly understood the difficulties which could arise when scientific literature is translated, and suggested: \textit{“…it should be done as follows well in advance: those who can speak foreign languages and do not know arts, should be sent to learn arts; while those who know arts and do not speak foreign languages, should be sent to learn languages.”} \cite[p.~215]{NL2Dri2015:deGrote}\footnote{V. \citeauthor{NL2Dri2015:deGrote}(\citeyear{NL2Dri2015:deGrote})}.
In pursuance of the country’s national needs, special works with utilitarian and practical focus were translated in the first place. We would note some unofficial requirements to translations, which formed at that time:
\begin{itemize}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item first, translations did not have to be made from the original;
\item second, translations did not have to be accurate; they could be modified (reviewed; cut down; what seemed unimportant, could be omitted). Peter I, to a great extent, inspired this: \textit{“Whereas Germans are accustomed to fill their books with a great deal of useless narration to only make believe they are great, therefore … the treatise should be corrected to blot out everything useless. As an example, find enclosed, so the books are translated the way you will see there -- without superfluous narration which only wastes time of the readers and puts them off the studies.”} \cite[p.~578]{NL4Sol1898:Readings}\footnote{See \citeauthor{NL4Sol1898:Readings}(\citeyear{NL4Sol1898:Readings})};
\item third, translations must be easily understandable: \textit{“write in your own language as distinctly as possible.”} \cite[p.~529]{NL4Sol1898:Readings}.
\end{itemize}
In that epoch, when no research in Russian existed, and Russian scientific terms only began to appear, it was extremely difficult to translate scientific texts. The Draft Regulations of the Academy provided for one translator in each academic class and recommended that each translator, in addition to Russian, should speak Latin, German, French, or Greek, as \textit{“numerous books circulate in these languages, and all known sciences reside in those books.”} \cite[p.~113]{NL5Mak1974:Andurov}. At first, those were foreigners. E.g. captured Swedes who knew Russian, were used as translators by the Order of Tzar of 23 January 1724. Subsequently, a special learning institution was established. In addition to the Swedes, the institution enrolled everyone who wished to be enrolled -- all in all, 30 to 40 men per year. Peter the Great himself, his high-ranking associates, and those Russian envoys who had studied abroad, did not disregard translations. As to professional Russian translators, almost all of them were graduates of Slavic Greek Latin schools and spoke Latin and Greek perfectly. They were often healers, as e.g. Satarov brothers, Maxim and Peter. Provided below, are some sketchy details we managed to find about them.
\textbf{Maxim Petrovich Satarov:} a son of a healer, graduate of a school of medicine and surgery, which was established by Nicolaas Bidloo, Chief Physician of Moscow General Hospital which was opened at the same time (1707). In 1724, M. Satarov presented his translations of \textit{Antropogenia} and \textit{Thesaurus} by Frederik Ruysch from Latin into Russian to the Academy, having entitled it Catalogue Antropogen and Thesaurus Ruysch. For these translations he was appointed to the position of a translator at the Academy of Sciences – \textit{“because … he is fully conversant in Latin and Russian and has sufficiently demonstrated his translating skills.”} (v. \cite[p.~64]{NL6Bir2010:lexicography}). Maxim Satarov translated the anatomic catalogue of Kunstkammer, all medical articles incorporated in the \textit{Summary of Comments from the Academy of Sciences, Part One, for 1726} and article entitled Borealis Aurora by Meyer, Professor of Mathematics, published in the same publication. Moreover, according to E.E. Birzhakova (senior research scientist at the Department of Vocabularies of Linguistic Research Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences), he was one of the authors of trilingual \textit{“Weismann’s Lexicon”} which was prepared in accordance with the instruction of the first President of the Academy of Sciences Lavrenty Lavrentievich Blumentrost. However, she mentioned that the translators of Lexicon \textit{“…being fluent in Latin, did not speak German at all or spoke but poor German.”} \cite[p.~63--64]{NL6Bir2010:lexicography}
It should be noted that the brothers have been often confounded with each other in bibliographic references. E.g. in an article devoted to translator Gorletsky, a reference reads as follows: \textit{German-Latin and Russian Lexicon: Conjointly with the first elements of the Russian Language boot / Published at the Imperial Academy of Sciences;} [Translated into Russian by I.I. Ilyinsky, \textbf{I.P. Satarov}, and I.R. Gorletsky] -- St. Petersburg: Gedr. in der Kayserl. Acad. der Wissenschafft en Buchdruckerey, 1731 \cite[p.~246]{NL7Smi2013:Gorletsky}.
The same translator was indicated in the Bibliographic Database too \cite{NL8BIB2018:Gorletsky}. Some authors did not write the initials at all to avoid the confusion: \textit{“From 1726 to 1733, 38 students studied at the University, only seven of them being Russian: Vasily Adodurov, son of a nobleman; Ivan Ilyinsky, academic translator; Denis Nadorzhinsky, son of Catherine I’s confessor; Peter Remezov, son of academic secretary; Andrey Gorlenko, son of regimental record clerk; {Healer Satarov}; and Ivan Magnitsky, son of a teacher of mathematics, who took private Latin lessons from Prof. I.-R. Beketstein”} \cite[p.~6]{NL9Kul1977:Readings}. Maxim Petrovich is known to have worked at the Academy as a translator for around nine years (from 1724 to 1732) \cite[p.~114]{NL5Mak1974:Andurov}. According to V.V. Bobynin, Maxim Satarov was a \textit{“translator at the Academy of Sciences as of 9 May 1724; died on 19 May 1732.”} (v. \cite[p.~24]{NL10Bob1890}).
Less information is available on his brother \textbf{Ivan Petrovich Satarov} (??--1749), who was also a healer and a translator. Judging from the fact that people described him as a \textit{“surgeon”}, it may be suggested that he had graduated from Moscow School of Medicine and Surgery as well. In St. Petersburg, I. Satarov was appointed to the Admiralty and served in both positions (translator and surgeon). V.V. Bobynin mentioned interesting details regarding the Satarovs: \textit{“The need to replenish the translator’s own knowledge, which quite often arose when translating others, made him} [Maxim Satarov] \textit{attend, together with his brother, public lectures in Anatomy and ‘Healing Sciences’ delivered by Academician and Professor Duvernois”} \cite{NL11EHn2018:Satarovy}. And further, Ivan Satarov \textit{“applied to the Academy of Sciences on 21 June 1732 for a position of a translator to fill the position of his deceased brother Maxim.”} \cite[p.~24]{NL10Bob1890}
Ivan Petrovich might well have been more skillful in colloquial West European languages such as German, because, in virtue of the nature of his service at the Admiralty, he had to deal with native speakers much more often than his brother Maxim, academic translator who worked basically with Latin publications. It was Ivan Petrovich Satarov who became the author of the first Russian translation of Euclid’s \textit{Elements}.
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\caption{\label{NLrys1}The Russian translation.}
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\small However, he did not translate from the original. He had to translate Henry Fargwarson's book, where the famous work was edited for length.
It was Peter I who invited Henry Fargwarson or \textbf{Andrey Danilovich Farwarson} (1674--1739) as they used to call him, Scottish mathematician, to Russia. Russian historians often described him as a famous Scottish professor of mathematics from Aberdeen University, which, as subsequently demonstrated A.N. Kholodolin, was not consistent with the reality: Henry Fargwarson (Farquharson) \textit{“was pretty young when Russian Tzar met him in England in 1699. At that time he was but a starting teacher of mathematics at one of Aberdeen colleges who could hardly imagine to become a professor, especially in this far-off and unknown Russia. However, Peter I, with his amazing insightfulness and ability to assess people, invited Fargwarson to work as a teacher of mathematics at Moscow School of Navigation, having offered him a contract with an annual salary of RUB 100, a good apartment free of charge, coverage of his subsistence expenses, and in addition, GBP 50 per each student who would under his leadership successfully graduate from the course of mathematical sciences.”} \cite{NL12Zue2005}
As of 1701, Fargwarson worked at "The school of mathematical and navigational, that is, naval cunning arts of learning”. This school was housed in Sukharev Tower in Moscow. When a naval academy appeared in St. Petersburg, the school was moved there (1716). First, Fargwarson thoroughly selected those foreign publications which could be used as textbooks for future naval officers; participated in editing translations of these books; and thereafter, took up the pen himself to fill gaps in Russian course books. In the year he died, two manuals he had written were published. One of them was of great importance for historians of mathematics. It was \textit{Euclid’s elements selected from twelve Newton’s books and abbreviated by Professor of Mathematics Andrey Farwarson to form eight books translated from Latin into Russian by Surgeon Ivan Satarov”} (St. Petersburg, 1739; 284 p., 13 tables).
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\caption{\label{NLrys2}Euclid in the translation of A. Farvarson, 1739.}
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There was a lot of Western publications of Euclid. However, Fargwarson singled out the abbreviated French publication of Books I -- VI and XI -- XII of \textit{The Elements} by \textbf{A. Tacquet} and gave an account of this publication in Latin. It should be noted that Fargwarson treated this Euclid’s work as a textbook in practical mathematics his naval cadets needed badly, not as a historical treasure which was of paramount importance for the development of mathematical science in Russia. [The name of Isaac Newton was taken in vain in the title of the book and had nothing to do with the contents of the book]. \textit{Archimedes’ Theorems selected by André Tacquet Jesuit and abbreviated by Georgy Peter Domkiio.} (St. Petersburg, 1745) [G.P. Domcke], as translated by the same Ivan Satarov, were a sequel to this book. This way the elements of classical heritage in elementary geometry became available to Russian readers as early as in the first half of the $18^{th}$ century.
It was not an easy thing for the pioneers to translate into Russian because the epoch of Peter the Great was the last period of Slavic-and-Russian bilingualism where two very unlike languages -- literary Slavic and ‘grass-roots’ Russian language -- had to coexist. According to historian R.M. Soloviev, \textit{“the learned who could speak foreign languages, i.e. translators, got used to the literary language, and colloquial, grass-roots language, seemed to be a language of evil people to them.”} \cite[p.~529]{NL4Sol1898:Readings} Translating traditions demanded that rhetorical moves which were uneasy to understand and Slavic forms of speech be consistently used. However, following the prompts of the deceased ruler (\textit{“to avoid high-sounding Slavic words”}), translators endeavoured, as far as possible, to use \textit{“public mediocrity language”}. Incidentally, they were also breaking new ground when they introduced Russian terminology: \textit{“Making a sustained effort and performing the responsible mission of translating foreign scientific books, selecting Russian equivalents to hundreds and thousands scientific terms, they made a tremendous contribution in the creation of the language of Russian science.”} \cite[p.~114]{NL5Mak1974:Andurov}
According to V.E. Pyrkov, the book translated by I.P. Satarov was not recognized \cite{NL13Pur2018} and relatively soon, a new book of Euclid’s geometry appeared. That's just where historians disagree. Some of them believe that in 1748 and in 1753 the printing office of the Naval Academy published a newly translated Euclid’s work which was incorporated in the textbook entitled \textit{A Book of Complete Edition on Navigation} (St. Petersburg, 1749--1753) by its author, Admiral R.I. Mordvinov, Academy graduate and an outstanding scientist \cite{NL13Pur2018, NL14persons2018:Mordvinov}, as a section devoted to geometry. According to other historians, \textit{“in November 1740, Mordvinov presented to the Board of Admiralties three parts of the Complete Edition on Navigation. The Board decided to publish 500 copies. When the book was published, it was entitled ‘A Book of Complete Edition on Navigation published by Order of HER IMPERIAL MAJESTY by State Board of Admiralties, printed in the Royal City of St. Petersburg at the printing office of Naval Academy in summer 1744...”} \cite{NL14persons2018:Mordvinov}. The bibliography of Mordvinov’s works reads as follows: \textit{“Complete Edition on Navigation (4 Parts)}. Published in 1744 and 1753; \textit{An Interpretation of Geometry}. Published in 1753.”
Nowadays, these books are sold as exceedingly rare (RUB 1,400,000--1,500,000) and bear an indication as follows: \textit{“Books of Complete Edition on Navigation, written in accordance with the Order of Her Imperial Majesty given from the State Board of Admiralty / Maritime Shipping Fleet by Captain Semen Mordvinov. St. Petersburg: At the printing office of Naval Academy; affiliated with the Sea Cadet Corps of Nobility, 1748--1753.}
\textit{Part 1: Contains geometry, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigo\-nometry.}
\textit{Part 2: Contains sphere, astronomy, and description of the Earth, or cosmography.}
\textit{Part 3: Contains the science of determining distances and time spans between luminaries and main circles; determining width and length of any place on the Earth; and various tables.}
\textit{Part 4: Contains navigation starting with compass, and loxodromics, and dead reckoning, and ship inclination (...).}
\textit{The author presented the first three parts of the book about navigation to the Maritime Board in 1740. It was not until 1750 when Captain Mordvinov presented the final Part Four. The Board delegated consideration of this part to Rear Admiral Rimsky-Korsakov and Captain Nagaev, who subsequently reported that was worth publishing. Semen Ivanovich was not awarded for his book-writing, and shortly after the book had been published, he wrote to the Board that ‘although his work on Navigation had been published, he had no copy thereof for himself’.”} \cite{NL15LIT2018:Ahouse}
In 1715, \textbf{Semen Ivanovich Mordvinov} (1701--1777), who belonged to one of the noble families, was introduced to Peter the Great who sent him to learn \textit{“numeral science” (“zifirnaja nauka”)} first, to school (Novgorod, Narva), and the same year, in October, he was transferred to Naval Academy.
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\begin{figure}[th!]
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\caption{\label{NLrys3}Semen Ivanovich Mordvinov (1701-1777)\protect\footnotemark (Source: \emph{\href{http://www.nearyou.ru/0liks/m/mordvinov.php}{Portal {\selectlanguage{russian} Музеи Европы}}}).}
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The duration of his studies there was still shorter: already in January 1716, Mordvinov was enrolled in the first set of midshipmen company on board the ship \textit{Mikhail Archangel} in Revel, which immediately left for Denmark with its squadron. It was in Denmark that Peter I met with the naval cadets and sent the best 20, including Semen, to France to \textit{“improve their nautical skills”}. During his service in Brest, France, Mordvinov, among other 10 meritorious cadets, was first appointed as a midshipman of French Fleet, and thereafter (in July 1722), the King of France conferred the rank of a ship second lieutenant on him. He returned to Russia in 1722, commanded many ships, and gradually moved up through the ranks. It should be noted that in February 1726, Admiral Gordon took him as a personal aide, and Semen Mordvinov served at Saint \textit{Alexandre} as a translator.
During the Seven Years' War (1756--1763), Mordvinov commanded a sea force, participated in the siege of Kolberg Fortress, and was promoted to a Rear Admiral; and subsequently, Catherine the Great conferred the rank of Admiral on him (1764). Semen Ivanovich successfully used any coastal pauses, which happened in the fighting, to carry out literary, technical, and historical research. The diversity of his findings bespeaks his exceptional abilities and knowledge \cite{NL16Bib2018:Mordvinov}\footnote{\cite[Available On-line from URL: {\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/85594/Мордвинов}{Мордвинов Семен Иванович.}}]{Bib2018:All} (Mordvinov Semen Ivanovich. (Mordvinov Semyon)).(in Russian): 27.03.2018.}\footnote{See \cite{NL16Bib2018:Mordvinov}.}. All it takes to make sure, is to list some of his works: \textit{On Establishment of Fleet on the Sea} (1735), \textit{The Book of Complete Edition on Evolution, or On the Exercise of Fleet of the Sea} (1736), three parts of \textit{Complete Edition on Navigation} (1740), \textit{Catalogue which contains articles on the Sun, the Moon, and stars, as well as on complete flood in famous places, gulfs, and rivers, and other descriptions pertaining to marine navigation in various tables along the St. Petersburg meridian} (1744), and other. Somewhat around 1745--1746, serving in the shore authorities in Kronstadt and St. Petersburg, Mordvinov began processing the archives of Admiral-in-General F.M. Apraksin, who had been heading the sea services of Russia for quarter of a century and whose papers had been dumped in a barn and forgotten for a long time. Evidently, being well aware of the value of these documents for future Russia, he thereby formed the basis for the Archives of Russian Navy \cite{NL14persons2018:Mordvinov}.
Approximately at the same time, he worked on his famous navigation manual, which was more comprehensive in its contents and, in addition to the geometry stated in accordance with Euclid, included trigonometry and navigation. Although this manual turned to be too complicated not only for naval cadets, but for teachers too \cite{NL13Pur2018}, nonetheless, future naval officers used this book to master the sciences for around two decades, until the new adapted edition of the \textit{Elements} was published. This was another translation of Euclid’s works, which was published in 1768 (or, according to V.V. Bobynin, in 1769) and prepared for the Naval Academy (since 1752 known as Naval College) as well. These were translated by N.G. Kurganov, educator, mathematician, author and writer of textbooks in mathematics and navigation in Russian.
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\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig4Kurganov.jpg}}
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\caption{\label{NLrys4}Nikolai Gavrilovich Kurganov (1725/26-1790/96).\protect\footnotemark}
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\textbf{Nikolai Gavrilovich Kurganov} (1725/26--1790/96) of humble pa\-rentage, son of a non-commissioned officer of Semyonovsky Life Guard Regiment, after three years of studies at a School of Navigation (1738-1741) under L.F. Magnitsky, was selected for further studies at the Naval Academy. However, in two years, still being a student of the Academy, he was engaged to teach astronomy and \textit{"enrolled in the class of ‘Greater Astronomy’, where the most gifted students took an extended programme, getting ready to teach.”} \cite{NL17LIB2018:Kurganov} Having graduated from the Academy (1746), Kurganov was retained at the Academy as an \textit{“apprentice”} (assistant lecturer) and served there for the rest of his life, teaching \textit{“mathematical and navigation sciences”}, and as of 1790, experimental physics as well. Although it was toilsome for him to build a career, and he was promoted slowly because he was a baseborn, in 1765, Kurganov was charged with governance of all teachers of mathematical sciences at the Sea Cadet Corps. The dates when the Academy awarded him the title of a professor vary (one can find 1773 and 1774). However, he became a professor of higher mathematics and navigation, when he was lieutenant colonel, as the author of manuals in main subjects which were taught in the Sea Corps \cite{NL18Pru1956}.
In the late fifties, teaching in the Corps, Kurganov successfully made astronomical calculations and observations at the observatory of the Academy of Sciences, participated in geographic expeditions to update maps of the Gulf of Finland and Baltic Sea (June 1750 -- March 1751; July 1752 -- July 1753). He was a close acquaintance of M.V. Lomonosov and, on his instruction, on 26 May 1761, together with A.D. Krasilnikov, was even watching Venus passing the Sun disk \cite{NL17LIB2018:Kurganov,NL18Pru1956}.
He was an extraordinary man. For his time, he was a very well educated man. He could perfectly speak French and German; he read books in his subject in Latin and English; and, what was most important, he endeavoured to simplify teaching, presenting the subject in a clear, unambiguous, and captivating manner. The manual he had written, \textit{Multi-Purpose Arithmetic, which contains a thorough study of the easiest ways to perform various arithmetical, geometrical, and algebraic calculations, all of which pertain to mathematics and may happen in public settings: In 2 Parts. -- St. Petersburg, 1757}, was published several times under different names. It replaced Arithmetic by Magnitsky and was widely used. The new method of narration promoted fast spreading of Kurganov’s textbooks, which were distinguished by their thoroughness, coherence, and clarity of materials contained therein. It should be noted that N.G. Kurganov is known to be the author of several textbooks in navigation, geodesy, theory of ship, shiphandling theory, naval tactics, coastal fortification, coastal defence, and a \textit{Manual of Letter Writing, which contains the science of Russian language and includes lots of educational and useful and entertaining additions of whatsoever nature}, published in St. Petersburg in two parts (1777).
Kurganov translated from French almost from the very beginning of his teaching career. However, the first three books in geometry and seamanship remained unreleased. In 60--70s, some more translations appeared. Those were books in navigation and Euclid’s work entitled \textit{Elements of Geometry, i.e. first bases of the science of measuring lengths, which consist of eight Euclid’s books explained in a new way, which is the most clearly comprehensible for youth. From the French original printed in the Hague in 1762, translated and published thanks to diligence and effort of Nikolai Kurganov, Captain of both Naval and Szlachta Corps, teacher of mathematical and navigational sciences. In St. Petersburg in 1769} \cite[p.~33]{NL10Bob1890}.
The reason was notable why N. Kurganov, the successful author of a popular textbook in mathematics, decided to translate Euclid. He wrote in the translator’s goals and objectives: \textit{“Mathematical sciences have been improving for a long time, and new works devoted to Geometry have been published almost daily. We do not despise these benefits, which have their merits; however, we do hope that publishers of those works will agree with us and prefer the Euclid’s Elements, which is the product of such an elevated mind that it can only be conveniently imitated, it cannot be surpassed. When no one opposes of our reassurance of Euclid’s indisputable advantage, we will have to only show here the advantage of this new publication compared to the preceding ones …”} \cite[p.~34]{NL10Bob1890}.
The next publication was in 1784. It was a translation of \textit{Euclid’s Elements -- eight books, i.e.: Books One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Eleven, and Twelve; enclosed to these, were Books Thirteen and Fourteen. Translated from Greek and revised. In St. Petersburg, in the printing office of the Naval Szlachta Cadet Corps.} This work was translated by teachers of this Corps, Masters of Oxford University, V.N. Nikitin and P.I. Suvorov.
\textbf{Vasiliy Nikitich Nikitin} (1737-1809) was a Russian mathematician, active Master of Sciences, teacher of mathematics, physics, Latin, and Russian. Nikitin was born to a family of a priest; in 1748, he entered the Moscow Slavic Greek Latin Academy and on graduation in 1761, was retained at the Academy as a teacher of the Greek and Jewish Languages. In four years, Vasiliy Nikitin stated his willingness to go to England as a supervisor of ten Russian students which were selected from religious schools as the best ones to study theology and Oriental languages at Oxford and Cambridge. \textit{“On his arrival to Oxford, the “supervisor” began studying sciences together with his underlings. The subjects he studied there were higher mathematics, experimental philosophy (physics), astronomy, chemistry, history, law, theology, English, and French and Italian to some extent. … For his commitment to studying sciences and praiseworthy diligence, in 1771, Nikitin was awarded the Master’s degree honoris causa, and in 1775, before his departure from England, the same University gave him the degree of active Master of Science. This degree had hardly ever been awarded to foreigners, as it was associated with obtaining of certain rights in the University’s the republic of letters and, what is more, of civil rights of a native Englishman.”} \cite{NL19Vladimirov2018}.
However, having returned to Russia, he did not succeed in scientific affairs, having taken on the task of teaching mathematics, physics, Latin, and Russian at the Sea Cadet Corps and writing textbooks. In 1783, V.N. Nikitin was elected to the newly established Russian Academy (established in 1783 by Russian Empress Catherine II and princess Dashkova as a research center for Russian language and Russian literature. Not to be confused with the Imperial Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences). However, he fell short of expectations here too.
The fate of his co-author, \textbf{Prokhor Ignatievich Suvorov} (1750--1815), ordinary professor of higher mathematics at Moscow University, is to a great extent similar to that of Nikitin. He was also born to a family of a churchman. Having graduated from a gymnasium in Tver in 1765, he was sent to Oxford. Having studied up Latin and mastered English there, he attended the courses of law, philosophy, history, theology, Ancient Hebrew, Greek, French, mathematics, and astronomy. Suvorov was also awarded the degree of an active Master at Oxford and, having returned to Russia (1775), taught mathematics, Latin, English, mythology, and language arts at the Sea Cadet Corps \cite{NL20Suvorov2018}.
Nikitin’s and Suvorov’s colleagues co-wrote several learning guides for the Sea Corps. However, according to V.V. Bobynin, only two of them were published: \textit{Plane Trigonometry and Spherical Trigonometry} (St. Petersburg, 1787) translated by the authors into English and published in London too, and \textit{Eight Books of Euclid’s Elements, i.e.: Books One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Eleven, and Twelve. Translated from Greek and revised.} (St. Petersburg, 1784). Let us just mention the second publication (1879) with added \textit{Books Thirteen and Fourteen.} According to F. Petrushevsky, who will be mentioned herein below, the \textit{“revisions”} that were made were very bold, so … Nikitin’s and Suvorov’s translations, which richly deserve to be described as a \textit{“good book in geometry”}, may not be regarded as Euclid’s \textit{Elements}, because they contain \textit{“so many amendments, additions, etc., that a shadow of the original can hardly be seen.”} However, this book is \textit{“notable … for the fact that it was for the first time that translators tried to replace the Greek and Latin geometrical terminology with the Slavic and Russian; a small share of the thus invented terms was good, e.g. “zadanie” (task) instead of “theorem” (theorem), “tochka” (point) instead of “punkt” (point); however, most of them were clumsy and unpronounceable.”} \cite{NL20Suvorov2018}
Another translation of Euclid’s \textit{Elements} was published in the early $19^{th}$ century. According to V.V. Bobynin, this one was the best one of those published in the $18^{th}$ -- $19^{th}$ centuries. This was the translation made by \textbf{Foma Ivanovich Petrushevsky} (1785-1848), a famous Russian metrologist and translator.
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\begin{figure}[th!]
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig5Petrushevsky_Foma.jpg}}
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\caption{\label{NLrys5}Foma Ivanovich Petrushevsky (1785-1848).\protect\footnotemark (Source: \href{http://www.bibliorossica.com/book.html?currBookId=22268}{Portal \emph{Academic Studies Press. BiblioRossica.}})}
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Petrushevsky, student of St. Petersburg Teachers’ Institute, having graduated from the Institute, worked as a teacher of mathematics and physics in one of gymnasiums in Pskov for eight years, three of which he was also the school principal. After he had been transferred to St. Petersburg (1816) \textit{“to deal with written affairs of the Conference of the Teachers’ Institute”}, he was gradually moving up the career ladder: he was head of the Department of the Main Administration of Colleges (1816); thereafter, worked at the Department of Public Education (1818) and the State Treasury (1820); worked as a principal at the poor child foundling hospital (1825--1834); and as of 1834, Director of the Institute for the blind \cite[v.~13, p.~708--709]{NL21RBD1902--1913}.
The \textit{“Main Administration of Colleges”}, which formed a part of the Ministry of Public Education (MPE), was, \textit{inter alia}, in virtue of its Charter, in charge of publishing textbooks for Russian schools. It was evidently at that time that Foma Ivanovich, based on his strong experience in teaching mathematics at gymnasiums, addressed to S.F. Lacroix’ arithmetic manual and translated it. This way the An \textit{Elementary Treatise on Arithmetic} (Traité élémentaire d'arithmétique) by Lacroix translated by F.I. Petrushevsky appeared in 1817. This textbook was published in St. Petersburg and included the translator’s notes and comments \cite{NL22Lak1817}. Interestingly, a year earlier, in 1816, another book by Lacroix was published in St. Petersburg, \textit{Introductory reasoning about arithmetic} translated by A.P. Rastorguev. However, the Academic Senate formed in 1817 at the MPE specifically approved the Lacroix’ book translated by Petrushevsky as a arithmetic learning manual.
This success as a translator prompted F.I. Petrushevsky to translate mathematical works of early Greeks, Euclid \cite{NL24Evk1835,NL22Lak1817} and Archimedes \cite{NL25Arh1823, NL26Arh1824}.
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\caption{\label{NLrys6}Archimedes in translation of F. Petrushewski, 1823.}
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In 1835, an encouragement Demidov Prize was awarded to him for these translations. In the 30s, Petrushevsky got carried away by metrological studies and published several works devoted to both ancient and contemporary metrology. In 1849, his main creation, General Metrology, was published posthumously. This work was awarded the Demidov Prize after the author’s death. According to V. Egorov, it was the \textit{“first metrology book which was written in the Russian language and included ancient and modern measures. What is more, it was not based on published sources only, it was based on information the author had obtained from private correspondence.”} \cite[v.~13, p.~708--709]{NL21RBD1902--1913} Furthermore, it should be noted that Petrushevsky was vigorously involved in creating the Russia’s first encyclopaedia which contained numerous original articles of Russian authors. It was Plyushar’s \textit{Encyclopedic Lexicon}, where almost all articles devoted to metrology were written by Petrushevsky.
His translation of \textit{The Elements} was the most complete one: at first, a work \cite{NL23Evk1819}, which comprised translated Euclid’s Books One to Six and Eleven to Thirteen, was published in 1819, and in addition, in 1835, Books Seven to Nine translated into Russian were published \cite{NL24Evk1835}. The only Euclid’s book that was not addressed was Book Ten, which was devoted to classification of incommensurable quantities. Let us take a closer look at this translation as a top achievement in translating scientific works of early Greek authors into Russian.
Having first sincerely praised Euclid and his \textit{Elements} in the Introductory Note to the publication of 1819, Petrushevsky then addressed the reason why he had taken on the task of doing this job:
\textit{“… probably no other book has suffered so much as The Elements from publishers and translators who, to all appearances, in eager rivalry, tried to get off the original, modify the best places which may not be stated or expressed otherwise, supplement these places with topics which have nothing to do with The Elements, and identify errors which, in fact, only exist in their own understanding. In order to satisfy yourself, just look at three translations which we already have. Each of them, and especially the last one, may be described as a good Geometry book; however, none can be called Euclid’s Elements, as there are so many amendments, additions, etc., that a shadow of the original can hardly be seen in them.”} \cite[p.~VI--VII]{NL27Evk2018}.
\begin{figure}[th!]
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig7Evklidovykhnacha00eucl.jpg}}
\caption{\label{NLrys7}Euclid in translation of F. Petrushewski, 1819.}
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The three translations mentioned by Petrushevsky are the translations from Latin made by I. Satarov (1739); from French, made by N. Kurganov (1769); and from Greek, made by Suvorov and Nikitin (1784). The source text for Petrushevsky’s translation was the Oxford publication of Euclid (Euclidis, quæ supersunt omnia, Oxoniæ, 1703). Petrushevsky chose this publication as \textit{“… English geometricians … had more zest for Geometric accurateness than anyone else,…and Euclid has had ardent proponents among them…”, and “in England, this kind of writings, which make the way to the science easier, thus only weakening it, had bred in smaller numbers.”} \cite[p.~VIII]{NL27Evk2018}\footnote{Available on-line at https://ru.wikisource.org/wiki/{\selectlanguage{russian}Индекс}:{\selectlanguage{russian}Начала\_Евклида}.djvu}.
The property of a translation is that it must be as close to the original as possible, except as it concerns \textit{“evident errors”} and \textit{“certain additions”}. Petrushevsky believed this property to be the main achievement, as compared to the “loose” translations of the $18^{th}$ century: \textit{“Everything else has been left sacred in order to let the lovers of Mathematical Sciences have the pleasure of meeting Euclid in his own, so to say, attire, especially because these Elements have still been taking precedence over everything that has been written to this end in conciseness, clarity, and accurateness, as well as in the contents of the topics and remarkable arrangement.”} \cite[p.~IX]{NL27Evk2018} He espoused the views of Montucla, Leibniz, and Wolff, believing that any rearrangement of materials in the course of translating negatively affects the strength of evidence. Entering into controversy with proponents of the rearrangement, Foma Ivanovich remarked that this new arrangement of materials in geometry, which was encouraged by some geometricians, was by no means harmless, and, in a sharp riposte, he recalled Montucla saying that the proposed new arrangement \textit{“constrains human brain and teaches to follow the path which is contrary to that through which truths are revealed.”} \cite[p.~X]{NL27Evk2018}
Petrushevsky gave a detailed and convincing response to the four main claims to the renowned Euclid’s work, which were associated with:
\begin{itemize}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item [1)] Postulate Eleven [There are various lists of "Elements" of Euclid with a different number and sequence of postulates and axioms. The translator retained the numbering used in the English edition \textit{of Euclidis, Quæ supersunt omnia, Oxoniæ, 1703.}];
\item [2)] the absence of proof for some cases;
\item [3)] the general theory of proportions;
\item [4)] the complexity of proof in Books Eleven and Twelve.
\end{itemize}
Regarding the statement that one of the postulates is not a postulate and must, therefore, be qualified as a theorem and proved, he noted that after it was first used to prove an assertion, it became almost evident, which is why the raised objection was not important anymore. It concerned Postulate 11 worded as follows: \textit{“That, if a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which are the angles less than the two right angles.”} \cite[p.~6]{NL27Evk2018}
The absence of proof can be clearly explained by the fact that Euclid proved only general cases and believed that individual cases need not be proved. Petrushevsky provided this proof in his “additions” to the translation, \textit{“making the reader feel free to decide whether this proof was essential or just useful.”} The translator denied the charges of too complicated a theory of proportional quantities Euclid had incorporated in The Elements, proving that \textit{“The arithmetical theory of proportions} [with which authors often try to replace the Euclid’s theory] \textit{was absolutely insufficient because it frustrated the most important and indispensable property of Mathematics, accuracy.”} \cite[p.~XIV]{NL27Evk2018} Comparing the theory of Euclid to the theory of Guriev set forth in \textit{Experience in Improving the Elements of Geometry} Petrushevsky exhibited the translator’s deep familiarity with and subtle knowledge of intricacies of the materials he translated. The last objection of partisans of the \textit{“improvement”} of the Euclid’s work forced Petrushevsky to analyse Euclid’s proof comprised in the books of \textit{The Elements} mentioned above and proofs of various authors offered to replace Euclid’s proof. He described Euclid’s proof as clear, accurate, and \textit{“being beyond any objections”}, while those of other authors, as based on \textit{“vague or far from fair. Because the proof may not be called ‘proof’, where it is assumed that straight lines consist of points, surfaces consist of lines, and bodies consist of surfaces; that a polygon, which has infinitely large or small number of sides, circumscribed about a circle equals the circle; that parallel lines meet at infinity, etc.”} \cite[p.~XV]{NL27Evk2018} Petrushevsky included his clarifications regarding other objections in the Additions, which also comprised his notes to the translation. Some of these notes were made to just supplement, others -- to be able to \textit{“understand other geometricians in a most convenient way, especially Archimedes and Apollonius.”} \cite[p.~XVI]{NL27Evk2018}
Adhering to the chronology of events, let us note an unusual publication of the Euclid’s work translated in 1877 in back Russia -- in Kremenchug -- by two students of a local non-classical secondary school. An article written by I.Y. Depman, \textit{Noteless Russian-language publication of Euclid’s Elements} \cite{NL28Dep1950:Nachal}, was devoted to this relatively unknown publication. T.A. Tokareva also mentioned this publication: \textit{“… in the second half of the $18^{th}$-- first half of the $19^{th}$ century, numerous attempts were made to publish translations of The Elements by N.G. Kurganov (1739), P.I. Suvorov and V.N. Nikitin (1784, 1789), F.I. Petrushevsky (1819, 1835), and E.V. Hartwig (1877).”} \cite[p.~212]{NL29Tok2005} Whereas we are speaking of translations into Russian, it should be noted that Hartwig published Euclid’s \textit{Elements} translated into German by G.F. Lorenz. However, he did not translate this work into Russian. According to I.Y. Depman, \textit{“The German publication of The Elements, which was translated by Lorenz and underlying the Russian translation, was very popular in the 19th century and was republished several times. The earliest Lorenz’ translation we know was published in 1771. Thereafter, there were at least several more publications: in 1781, 1798, 1809, 1819, 1824, 1825, 1839, and, finally, in 1860 with E.V. Hartwig’s appendices.”} \cite[p.~470]{NL28Dep1950:Nachal}.
Thus, another Russian translation of \textit{The Elements (Eight Books of Euclidian Geometry)} was made from Lorenz’ German translation published by Dr. Hartwig by Nemirovsky and Berger, students of Alexandre Nonclassical Secondary School in Kremenchug \cite{NL30Evk1877}. They translated this work under the direction of the School Principal A.A. Sokovich. Some details about the latter are provided in the work of I.Y. Depman \cite{NL30Evk1877}. \textbf{Alexandre Antonovich Sokovich} (1840--1886), graduate of Kharkov University who was granted the title of its active student in 1863 after the graduation. Thereafter, he taught geography, mathematics, and physics at secondary schools in Voronezh and Ekaterinoslav for around a year. However, being dissatisfied with his level of knowledge and being keen to improve his skills, in 1864 he came to attend a two-year Teachers Training Course at the same Kharkov University to focus on math and physics. While he was attending the course, he passed a special test to \textit{"be approved in the degree of a candidate of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics in the Department of Mathematical Sciences"} \cite[p.~472]{NL28Dep1950:Nachal} An additional point is that his writings included two manuals (in Elementary Geometry and Mathematical and Physical Geography) designed for course students. Notably, these manuals comprised a number of valuable historical notes, which was not characteristic of this kind of manuals. This characterises Sokovich as an extraordinary teacher who was able to capture the interest of his students and encourage them to engage in such unordinary activities.
In the Introduction to the Russian translation, A. Sokovich, who also edited this translation, wrote that it had been around half a century since The Elements were last published in Russian, and \textit{“…Euclid seems to have been forgotten here, and yet, his Elements of Geometry, with their simplicity and clarity of proof, are indisputably among top course books, and we believe that they may serve as a very useful manual for students of secondary schools.”} \cite[p.~2]{NL30Evk1877}
Why did the above publication of The Elements attract the attention of the editor and the translators? Why this one? It was most likely because it was the most \textit{“schoolish”} one, as it comprised Euclid’s Books One to Six and Eleven and Twelve, while Hartwig’s additions to it pursued \textit{“the express purpose to adapt the Euclid’s Elements to the needs of school”}. The volume of the work was also of importance. The point is that in the German publication, Lorenz was rather successful in applying symbols when stating materials, which substantially reduced its volume. Russian translators used this method as well, therefore, the translation had only 172 pages, while 9 tables with perfectly written 232 figures were enclosed separately. The size and the implementation made this manual easy to use as a textbook.
The last translation of Euclid’s \textit{Elements} into Russian made in the $19^{th}$ century was the publication of 1880 as revised by Vashchenko-Zakharchenko \cite{NL31Evk1880}. \textbf{Mikhail Egorovich Vashchenko-Zakharchenko} (1825--1912) studied at the Department of Mathematics of the School of Philosophy at St. Vladimir University in Kiev; as of 1864, he was privat-docent, and as of 1867, professor of the same University.
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\caption{\label{NLrys9}Mikhail Egorovich Vashchenko-Zakharchenko (1825-1912) (Source: \cite{NVS1983}))}
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The range of his research interest was quite wide. However, History of Mathematics was perhaps one of the highest on the list. Vashchenko-Zakharchenko was the author of several pretty valuable historical research studies. They were devoted to both special issues in the history of mathematics and general theory. In the late seventies, he was carried away by issues in non-Euclidean geometry; held a course in this subject at the University (1878--1881), incorporating all of the most recent achievements in this area in his course \cite{NL32Zub1956}.
In the Introduction to his translation, addressing the \textit{“efforts that have been recently made by geometricians to explain the elements of Geometry and take stock of Euclid’s Elements”,…} and \textit{“endeavours taken to introduce them in schools as a manual”}, he backed up these initiatives and noted that it was very important to use \textit{The Elements} as a manual in geometry in terms of pedagogics. \textit{“Teaching math in gymnasiums}, he wrote, \textit{has a two-fold purpose: first, to appropriately develop the way of thinking, which is a pedagogical goal…; second, to lay a solid foundation for further studying of mathematics as a science with all its branches.”} \cite[p.~I]{NL31Evk1880} Owing to his extensive experience in teaching math at learning institutions and administering examinations of whatsoever nature, Mikhail Egorovich came to a strong conclusion that \textit{”nothing had had such negative effect on students’ appropriate mathematical development as the great variety of manuals, which does not result in the development of knowledge of Geometry as a strict logical system; instead, this results in knowledge of a mix of theorems, on frequent occasions pretty bold knowledge, however, lacking any logical order.”} \cite[p.~II]{NL31Evk1880}
It should be noted that as a translator, Vashchenko-Zakharchenko felt pretty free with \textit{The Elements}, being governed by his main goal: to make a good teaching guide for a teacher. He himself pointed at processing of the text: \textit{“To find out the meaning of definitions, postulates, and assumptions, in the Introduction, I gave an account of Legendre’s research devoted to the sum of angles in a triangle, of the relationship of this theorem with the Euclid’s assumption, and of Lobachevsky’s system known as non-Euclidean geometry where the Euclid’s assumption is to a certain extent modified. The insight into this system casts a light upon the elements of Geometry and enables a more appropriate attitude to the assumption which used to be the subject of numerous misconceptions, disputes, and studies.}
\textit{“The Introduction is followed by the translation of Euclid’s Elements with comments and additions. … Enclosed at the end of the work, are problems to each book and a list of specific theorems from each book which must be taken into account to solve each of these problems.”} \cite[p.~V]{NL31Evk1880}
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\caption{\label{NLrys11}Euclid in thranslation of M.Vashchenko-Zaharchenko, 1880.}
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Consistently commenting upon each of the translated Euclid’s books in the Introduction, he instantly instructed the reader what was worth special attention there; what notes were incorporated in the translation and what for; what needed to be explained by the teacher to his/her students, etc. In the end of the Introduction, the author provided interesting statistical data on all publications of The Elements he had managed to collect: \textit{“… all in all, there were up to 460 publications; 155 of them, in Latin and Greek; 142, in English; 48, in German; 38, in French; 27, in Italian; 14, in Dutch; 5, in Russian; 2, in Polish; and 26, in various other languages, e.g.: Swedish, Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish, Danish, Chinese, Arabic, etc. This publication is the fifth one in the Russian language.”} \cite[p.~X]{NL31Evk1880} It should be noted in this connection that Mikhail Egorovich counted two translations made by F.I. Petrushevsky as one, and he was either unaware of the translation made under the direction of A.A. Sokovich or did not want to count it).
According to D.D. Morduhai-Boltovskoi, the next translator of \textit{The Elements}, the translation of M.E. Vashchenko-Zakharchenko was \textit{“…ve\-ry loose and occasionally inappropriate. It is reasonable to believe}, wrote Morduhai-Boltovskoi, \textit{that the work was translated from Latin publication of R. Simpson who was quite free with Euclid’s text; it was this publication where he had taken most of his comments from, having thereafter supplemented them with his own translator’s comments, which were generally pretty superficial. However, it cannot be denied that this publication, regardless of its weaknesses, turned to be very useful”} \cite[p.~7]{NL33Evk1950}
It is debatable whether the purpose of this translation justifies the means used to achieve it, but the amount of work the translator had done was really immense. This Introduction; then 716 pages of text; then the \textit{List of The Elements by Euclid published in the period from 1482 to 1880} in the end of the work (p. 717--730); then a wonderful, in terms of its bibliographic significance, \textit{Index of Works devoted to Non-Euclidean geometry, which were published until 1880} (p. 731--742) [all in foreign languages, except for one Russian publication (M.E. Vashchenko-Zakharchenko. Introduction to \textit{The Elements} by Euclid. Kiev, 1880)]; and a \textit{List of Works the author used when preparing this work} (p. 743--746), which was equally useful and important. Apropos, the above \textit{List of The Elements…} and \textit{Index…} were published the same year (1880) in Kiev as individual publications.
It is fair to say that contemporaries highly appreciated the work of M.I. Vashchenko-Zakharchenko. Thus, in three years after it had been published, Mikhail Semenovich Panchenko, privat-dozent of the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Novorossiysk University and Chairman of the Teachers Council of G.R. Berezina female classical school in Odessa, published a brochure, \textit{Geometry of the Ancients}, which clearly showed that this translation of Euclid was thoroughly studied by progressive teachers of that time. It was thanks to this translation, which was adapted basically for teachers, that Russian teachers could learn of the great heritage of the ancients, admire it, and present it to their students. This was what Panchenko wrote about this translation: \textit{“I admit that The Elements by Euclid represent a wonderful example of the depth of synthesis. What an extraordinary clarity and, at the same time, simplicity; what a strict consistency throughout the system!”} \cite[p.~4]{NL34Evk1883}
Several responses to the new Russian publication of \textit{The Elements} appeared abroad as well. We learnt about one of them from Academician V.G. Imshenetsky, who made an announcement at a meeting of Kharkov Society of Mathematics on 29 September 1881. The text of his announcement and extracts from the review by Professor Hoüel (Bulletin des Sciences Mathématiques et Astronomiques. v. IV. Mars, 1880) of the new publication of \textit{The Elements} by Euclid under the editorship of Prof. Vashchenko-Zakharchenko as translated by Imshenetsky were published in \textit{Announcements and Minutes…} of the Society \cite{NL35Evk1880}. Provided herein below are several extracts from the speech of the author of the announcement and the above review.
\textit{“There was no shortage of publications of the famous book, V.G. Imshenetsky began, “the publication mentioned above was at least the $461^{st}$ one as of the time the book printing was invented. However, in spite of the constantly growing number of these publications, there was no publication edited in the context of the most recent discoveries which were made in the current half of the century in relation to the nature of principles of elementary geometry.}
\textit{Now we have the pleasure to announce that this deficiency has been made up for with a wonderful publication, the name whereof was provided above. Owing to the comments and additions of the learned publisher, which enriched his work, this Euclid’s treatise may now serve as a text in elementary teaching and, at the same time, guide geometricians who wish to get acquainted with high-class research studies which were conducted in these recent years thanks to the detailed study of the elements of science of space.”} \cite[p.~129]{NL35Evk1880}
Further, often without making distinction between his own opinion and utterances of the reviewer, Imshenetsky analysed the work under review in pretty much detail, giving generous praise to the translator for the interesting introductory word, \textit{“for the wonderful Legendre’s research studies”}; for the additions concerning the non-Euclidean geometry, which formed the \textit{“indispensable addition to any treatise in elementary geometry”} stated on 60 pages and \textit{“would be interesting and useful to read”}; for the accuracy of the translation; for the language \textit{“filled with the spirit of rigour”}, etc. \cite[p.~133--134]{NL35Evk1880}. Imshenetsky emphasized that \textit{“… Mr. Zakharchenko had enriched his work with a precious supplement consisting of three bibliographical guides with a list of 460 Euclid’s publications printed in almost all literary languages known since the time the book-printing was invented, provided in the first supplement. G. Hoüel, on his part, added five more items to this list, which were missing there.”} \cite[p.~135]{NL35Evk1880}
In the end of his speech, V.G. Imshenetsky quoted the final words of the reviewer: \textit{“In his excellent translation and additions, which are altogether in harmony with the text, the learned professor from Kiev provided this classic text, which is the most recent and complete of all we have had in elementary geometry. Whilst Slavic languages have not taken the rightful place in our (French) schools, which conform with the scientific role of the nations speaking these languages, we strongly recommend the translation of this wonderful book into the language which is more widely-spread in our country.”} \cite[p.~135]{NL35Evk1880}
The differences in opinions of scientists of the $19^{th}$ and $20^{th}$ centuries on this work can be explained quite easily: requirements to translating classical authors had changed. Whilst at first, translations were assessed in terms of their practical usefulness for students, later, scientists began caring more about the originals, as more accurate translations enabled \textit{“those studying the history of mathematics and interested in obtaining unimpaired Euclid”} \cite[p.~5]{NL33Evk1950} to get a closer insight into the original.
\section{The first Russian translations of works on the history of science}
Our consideration of the issue associated with the first translations of works of classical authors in the history of mathematics into Russian would be incomplete, if we leave out the translations of the most remarkable research studies devoted to the general history of science or the history of mathematics and various areas thereof from European languages. We believe that publishing of these articles and books played a significant role in the period of inception of the history of mathematics in Russia. It seems that a brief review of some publications -- different in volume and importance, and considered chronologically -- describing translators’ personalities would be useful.
The translation by Bogdanovich of Volume One of Montucla’s \textit{History of Mathematics} may be considered as one of the earliest translations of this kind. Research studies of the French scientist, \textbf{Jean-Étienne Montucla} (1725--1799), in the sphere of mathematics were mainly devoted to its history. However, the work \cite{NL36Montucla1758} published in 1758 in Paris in two volumes and significantly improved and expanded in 1799, was rightfully considered as the most significant for the scientific world. Describing merits of Montucla’s book, V.V. Bobynin pointed out that, of all books in the history of science of that period, this one was the most complete statement of history of mathematics -- both pure mathematics and applied mathematics.
\textbf{Peter Ivanovich Bogdanovich} (late 1740s/ early 1750s -- 1803), who translated Montucla’s \textit{History of Mathematics}, studied first, at Leipzig University and then, in Holland and England. Therefore, he was fluent in basic European languages (German, French, and English). After he had returned to Russia, he served in the army for a while and thereafter, having resigned, was admitted to the Academy of Sciences as a translator and assistant librarian. Responsibilities of Peter Bogdanovich included maintaining the library catalogue, editing \textit{Academic News} (1779--1791), proofreading, and \textit{“improving style”} \cite{NL37Kochetkova:2018}. The Russian translation of Montucla was published exactly in those years, when Bogdanovich was editing the academic publication entitled \textit{“The History of Mathematics. Background Information on Property, Division, and Usefulness of Mathematics”} without any references to Montucla.
\begin{figure}[th!]
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\caption{\label{NLrys12}Montucla in thranslation of P. Bogdanovich, 1799-1781.}
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In the February issue of the \textit{Academic News} in 1779, this memoir began with the following \textit{“Contents:}
\begin{enumerate}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item[I.] \textit{Origin of the word ‘mathematics’}
\item[II.] \textit{Its property and subject matter}
\item[III.] \textit{Division and dissemination thereof of whatsoever nature in the earliest times and contemporary times}
\item[IV.] \textit{Metaphysical inception of this science and its various branches}
\item[V.] \textit{Useful note about the so-called mental and pure mathematics}
\item[VI.] \textit{Opinion on this science of the most celebrated geometricians}
\item[VII.] \textit{Response to the objections raised by Sceptics and Epicureans against this science}
\item[VIII.] \textit{Protection from persecutors of this science}
\item[IX.] \textit{Advantages and benefits thereof. Interesting application pertaining to the applications to which any thinkers applied it}
\item[X.] \textit{Apology of the pure and solely mental mathematics.”} \cite[p.~113--114]{NL38Montyukla:1779}
\end{enumerate}
The translation was signed at p. 160 in full: \textit{“Peter Bogdanovich”} (this was the only case). In subsequent months, signatures were abbreviated (\textit{“Peter Bogd-ch”}, “P.B.”); sometimes, the signature was missing. Prof. N.D. Kochetkova (Pushkin House) believes that Bogdanovich \textit{“ascribed this Montucla’s translation to himself, … responding to the query of the Academic Senate of 13 May 1782, translator M. Kovalev stated that this translation belonged to him, and “maybe, somebody’s name was put there erroneously””} \cite{NL37Kochetkova:2018}. The authorship of this translation seems to be doubtful, the fact whereof is supported by practice of “collective” translating, which existed at the Academy at that time. Parts of a text were given to different specialists, and each translated his part \textit{“in his own flat”}. Bobynin, for example, wrote that such careless way of making translations created an opinion among some readers that the memoir entitled \textit{The History of Mathematics} was written by a Russian author, i.e. P.I. Bogdanovich. However, nobody can deny that this work, which appeared in the last quarter of the $18^{th}$ century, was a vivid evidence of the interest which arose in the Russia’s scientific community with respect to various issues in the history of mathematics.
Another weird publication stands out -- translation of an article of \textbf{F. Lenormant}, which was published in Paris in 1867. This article was devoted to the discovered Egyptian papyrus, which comprised a fragment from geometry in the appendix to the land surveying. To all appearance, sensation aroused interest of D. Planer, the author of the translation, so he found it useful to publish the news of this revelation in the \textit{News and Miscellaneous} Section of \textit{Mining Journal} \cite{NL39Lenorman1868}. The attitude to this insignificant publication as an article designed as \textit{‘light reading’} vanishes once you have checked the personality of its translator. \textbf{Dmitry Ivanovich Planer} (1820--1882), mining engineer and Russia’s mining art historian, served in the Urals and in St. Petersburg; as of 1868, was the founding member of the St. Petersburg Society of Natural Philosophers, at the Department of Geology and Minerology; reviewed articles published in the \textit{Mining Journal} \cite[p.~12]{NL40Plavil:1910}. Having learnt this, one comes to understand that this man was not driven by idle curiosity of a layman. Instead, he was fuelled by the joy of finding: \textit{“This fragment} [papyrus], \textit{which I had the honour to examine and study, states methods of measuring areas of a square, parallelogram, various triangles, and volume of a pyramid. The paleographical type of these writings makes me refer this manuscript to the $12^{th}$ dynasty, i.e. almost as contemporary with Solomon. There is all the more reason for this as this papyrus comprises a note which evidences that it is a copy of a still earlier text.”} \cite[p.~300]{NL41Lui:1869} This small news story is not only to illustrate the interest of a wider range of specialists in issues related to the history of physical and mathematical sciences. It also enables us to note the awareness and comprehensive knowledge of the specialists who annotated Russian scientific journals and translated articles for them.
The demand for historical and scientific literature devoted to personalities of scientists was gradually growing in Russia. To satisfy this demand, dictionaries and encyclopaedias were published, including the work of L. Figuier \textit{Vie des savants illustres depuis l'antiquité jusqu'au XIX siècle} translated from French and published in the period from 1869 to 1873. \textbf{Louis Figuier} (1819--1894) was a French literary figure and natural philosopher, teacher of natural sciences at schools in Montpellier and Paris. His literary talent enabled him to write not an ordinary biographical directory of men of science. Instead, he created kind of a summary collection which narrated lives and creative work of great scientists in an artistic manner. \textit{“Strangely, he wrote in the Introductory Note, no one in the contemporary literature has thought of combining biographies of various scientists into one book. … Addressing us to the rather challenging (in its scope and versatility) business of describing lives and assessing works of people renowned in all branches of human knowledge, we are sure that our work will fill a substantial gap in the scientific literature.”} \cite[p.~I]{NL41Lui:1869}
The author felt that this work was of use for the readers, noting that \textit{“the lives of great men in science… was interesting for all sorts of public. … Whether they are physicists, chemists, natural philosophers, or engineers, all of them need to know lives of founding figures in the science they deal with, as well as those of patriarchs of auxiliary sciences…. Society people … will be delighted to have the opportunity to read about and, if need be, consult on biographies of these honoured men, biographies which we scrupulously elaborated caring about the literary form. … Young educatees … will learn to perceive virtue, genius, and honour, represented by immortal advocates and creators of science.”} \cite[p.~II]{NL41Lui:1869}
\textbf{Nikolai Nikolaevich Strakhov} (1828--1896), famous Russian phi\-losopher, book critic, publicist, librarian, Corresponding Member of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1889), translated this work of Figuier. Strakhov was born in Belgorod.
\begin{figure}[th!]
%\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig1075b06.jpg}}
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig13Im0012.jpg}}
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%\centerline{\includegraphics[width=4.8cm]{Podpis.jpg}}
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\caption{\label{NLrys13}\href{http://belstory.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/clip_image0012.jpg}{Nikolai Nikolaevich Strakhov (1828-1896)}.\protect\footnotemark}(Source: \href{http://belstory.ru/mir-belogoryya/istoriya/straxovy-iz-belgoroda.html}{Portal \emph{BelStory.RU}. \selectlanguage{russian} Летопись Белогорья})
%\begin{minipage}{140mm}
%\centering {{1. Zdjęcie Franciszka Włodarskiego oraz jego podpis}}
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\end{figure}\footnotetext{See \cite{NVS1984}.}
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Therefore, the library of Belgorod University was named after him; it was also in Belgorod that a bibliographical guide of his works comprising around 800 sources was also published. According to Professor E.A. Antonov, who prepared this guide, \textit{“… N.N. Strakhov’s forty years of literary, scientific, and philosophical activities, were notable for vast knowledge in various spheres of culture and comprehensive understanding.”} \cite{NL42Strahov:2018}. The luckily shaped combination of an author and translator ensured the success of this publication. It was widely used not only by scientists. General public used it as well. The Russian publication comprised three volumes:
Volume I: Great Scientists of Ancient Times (426 p., 1869)
Volume II: Great Scientists of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (558 p., 1871)
Volume III: Scientists of the $17^{th}$ and $18^{th}$ Centuries (504 p., 1873) \cite{NL43Lui:1887}
\begin{figure}[th!]
%\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig1075b06.jpg}}
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig15.jpg}}
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\caption{\label{NLrys14}\href{http://padabum.net/pics/31808.jpg}{Louis Figuier in translation of N. Strakhov in 3 volumes, 1869-1873}.}
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%\centering {{1. Zdjęcie Franciszka Włodarskiego oraz jego podpis}}
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In the early 70s of the $19^{th}$ century, two parts of \textit{The History of Mathematical Sciences} by \textbf{Heinrich Suter} (1848--1922), historian of mathematics and school teacher, and subsequently Doctor Honoris Causa of Zurich University, were published in Zurich: Part I (thesis) in 1871 (in 1873, the second edition, reprinted) and Part II in 1875. Soon these books came to be known not only in West Europe, but in Russia too, the fact whereof was witnessed by V.V. Bobynin: \textit{“the work of Dr. Suter enjoys well-deserved recognition abroad, especially when it concerns the history of development of higher mathematics.”} \cite[p.~37]{NL44Zuter1877} Interestingly, Suter conceived a plan of his work after he had read \textit{The History of Mathematics} by Montucla. He mentioned the fact thereof in the preface. Exactly in three years after the second publication of Suter’s Part I had been issued, A. Manuilov translated it into Russian and published in Chisinau (1876). \cite{NL45Zuter:1876}
\begin{figure}[th!]
%\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig1075b06.jpg}}
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig16_6839_970.jpg}}
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%\centerline{\includegraphics[width=4.8cm]{Podpis.jpg}}
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\caption{\label{NLrys16}\href{https://buyabook.ru/wa-data/public/shop/products/20/58/5820/images/6839/6839.970.jpg}{G. Zute in thranslation of A. Manujlov, 1876}.}
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%\centering {{1. Zdjęcie Franciszka Włodarskiego oraz jego podpis}}
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\end{figure}
The information available about Manuilov is pretty scarce. However, we managed to find a work of local historians and journalists entitled \textit{Bessarabian Stories} (2011), which contained some details about this man.
\textbf{Anton Mikhailovich Manuilov} (1844--1936) was born in Ackerman; studied at the First Chisinau Gymnasium; thereafter, entered the Department of Physics and Mathematics of St. Petersburg University; \textit{“having graduated from this University, began teaching mathematics, physics, and cosmography, first, in the gymnasium he had graduated from, then at a theological seminary and high school for girls. He published several popular science works in mathematics and astronomy, and improved the wine measure.”} \cite[p.~234]{46} He was fluent in foreign languages, at least in German and French, and lived a long life rich in events. He was pretty persistent: in his seventies, he set to study statistics, higher mathematics, chemistry, biology, and philosophical issues. \textit{“As a result of his studies, he wrote a book in French, entitled ‘Experience in Commercial Bookkeeping in Units of Energy’.”} \cite[p.~235]{46}
Manuilov stated in the \textit{Translator’s Foreword} that he \textit{“…translated most of this work literally. Departures from the original were made mostly in those places where we found any inaccuracies or omissions of the author.”} \cite[p.~I]{NL45Zuter:1876} He approached the materials he translated from a critical standpoint. He noted those places which he believed to be weak, in particular, the history of mathematical sciences in the Arab world and in the East, which was written without using the most recent research studies. And he was going to \textit{“fill this gap in an appendix to Part Two of the work I am publishing.”} \cite[p.~I]{NL45Zuter:1876}
In a year after the translated Suter’s book was published in the Magazine of the Ministry of Public Education (1877), an anonymous review of the above work was issued. V.P. Zubov believed that the author of this review was V.V. Bobynin \cite[p.~279]{NL32Zub1956}, and we concede to his opinion, as, having read Bobynin’s works, one can easily recognize his style, rhetorical move he used, etc. The reviewer noted that the translation of \textit{“… the first part of this work was made distinctly, in most cases correctly, and almost as a word-based translation. Giving full credit to Mr. Manuilov’s work, we believe, however, that some comments, which could be of use for further publications of this book, will not be superfluous.”} \cite[p.~39]{NL44Zuter1877} To put it bluntly, the essence of his comments was as follows:
\begin{itemize}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item [1)] Latin and Greek quotations in the original have not been translated into Russian, which will make it more complicated to understand them for those who don’t speak Latin or Greek;
\item [2)] works of Russian scientists devoted to the history of mathematics and translations of works of the ancients (V.Y. Bunyakovsky, F.I. Petrushevsky) have not been mentioned;
\item [3)] and 4) translator’s misprints and slips of the tongue;
\item [5)] Suter has not mentioned the works of Euclid and Archimedes translated by Peyrard, while these translations were recognized as the best ones for the time being. The translator had to fill this gap.
\end{itemize}
Generally, this was a positive review: \textit{“Regardless the trivial inaccuracies we mentioned, we recognize that the foregoing translation is a pretty useful book for both the learners and the teachers. If Mr. Manuilov accomplishes this translation, Dr. Suter’s History of Mathematical Sciences he publishes will fill the decidedly perceptible gap in our educational and academic literature -- there is still no complete publication like this in Russian.”} \cite[p.~40--41]{NL44Zuter1877} It should be noted that in 1905, this Suter’s book was translated by another translator, \textbf{P. Fedorov} and published in St. Petersburg.
Being faithful to the chronology of publications, let us consider F. Pavlenkov’s translation (1880) of a popular science work of G. Tissandier, Les Martyrs de la science. \cite{47}. \textbf{Gaston Tissandier} (1843--1899), French chemist, meteorologist, aeronaut (wrecked during ballooning), writer, and publisher, professor of Polytechnic Union, and member of French Legion of Honour. The work concerned was, perhaps, the first attempt made in France to speak about tough fate of scientists -- those selfless workers of science whose discoveries have enabled the human race to use material and spiritual wealth. The author was very convincing writing of the reasons which made him publish his work: \textit{“We are well aware of the fact that Xerxes has burnt Athens; Pompei and Caesar have shed blood like water …; however, we know almost nothing about Euclid’s or Archimedes’ lives, while their discoveries have still been of use in our everyday life. But we owe the civilisation to these great overachievers from all countries and all times, not to warriors or conquerors.”} \cite{47}
\textbf{Florentiy Fedorovich Pavlenkov} (1839--1900), educator and book publisher, the man who \textit{“had taught Russia to read”}, took on the task of translating.
\begin{figure}[th!]
%\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig1075b06.jpg}}
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig17_Pavlenkov.jpg}}
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\caption{\label{NLrys17} Florentiy Fedorovich Pavlenkov (1839-1900).\protect\footnotemark.}
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%\centering {{1. Zdjęcie Franciszka Włodarskiego oraz jego podpis}}
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\end{figure}\footnotetext{\cite{Ras1960:Pavlenko}}
He studied at Alexandre Cadet Corps, graduated from Mikhailovsky Academy of Artillery, served in the army, and having retired, opened a book store and began publishing. As a publisher, Pavlenkov focused on books designed for general reader: Russian classical literature, books for children, scientific translations and popular-science literature, biographical series like \textit{Life of Outstanding People}. He was imprisoned in Peter and Paul Fortress and was exiled on repeated occasions for some of his inappropriate publications and rebellious speeches. M.E. Selenkina, a woman of letters from Vyatka, recollected that, when in exile in Vyatka, Florentiy Fedorovich \textit{“was always on the go, … he was a unique all-rounder: a wonderful translator, feature-writer, editor, publisher, scientist and inventor, and even practiced law.”} \cite{48} Of course he could not miss out Tissandier’s book because he was well aware of its importance for the promotion of scientific knowledge. And he was quite right: later editions of this book were published in 1891, 1894, 1901, 1904, 1907, and 1913.
The translation by V.Y. Zinger of the work of \textbf{Michel Chasles} (1793--1880) devoted to the history of geometry was a landmark in the period of infancy of the Russian history of mathematics. At first, the book was published in the \textit{Mathematical Compendium} in parts (Volumes V--X, 1870--1880); subsequently it was published as a separate publication in two volumes \cite{49, 50}. Chasles’ work entitled \textit{“Aperçu historique sur l'origine et le développement des méthodes en Géométrie particulièrement de celles qui se rapportent à la Géométrie modern”} appeared in 1837 in Brussels. According to R. Bertrand, this was the \textit{“…most academic, insightful, and innovative work devoted to the history of mathematics of those that had ever been published.”} \cite[p.~28]{51}
The author himself wrote in the Preface to the second publication that this work \textit{“was initiated by a problem offered by Brussels Academy. At first, it comprised but two memoirs, which were presented to the Academy in December 1829… . When the Academy ruled to write this book, I decided to expand the introduction and add results of some research studies pertaining to the same subject to it as notes.”} \cite[v.~I, p.~I]{50} In his work, Chasles provided \textit{“a summary of the most important discoveries, owing to which the pure geometry reached its modern development level, and primarily those discoveries which formed base for the most recent methods”}, described these discoveries and methods, and suggested his division of the history of geometry into five historical periods (epochs). To keep focused on the contents, and to avoid encumbering the main text with additional detailed explanations, biographies, and historical digressions, he included them in a separate volume, which turned to be quite reasonable for the readers. In the Russian publication of 1883, a note to the author’s preface stated that the editorial staff of the \textit{Mathematical Compendium} began publishing this Chasles’ work because both the French original (1837) and the German translation made by Dr. Sohncke (1839, Halle) became rare books all at once.
Neither the translator’s nor the editor’s name has been provided on the cover of the Russian publication. However, it is common knowledge that \textbf{Vasily Yakovlevich Zinger} (1836--1907) was the translator and the editor of this publication. He was a graduate of Moscow University, Doctor of Pure Mathematics, Professor Emeritus, subsequently Dean and Provost of the Imperial Moscow University, founder of Moscow school of geometry, and President of Moscow Mathematical Society. His student, Prof. Andreev, stated that “as a young man,” Vasily Yakovlevich \textit{“was very passionate about Chasles’ works and closely scrutinized them… He translated one of Chasles’ fundamental works … into Russian in full, however, he did not do it diligently, he did not pursue editing details; instead, he did it as quickly as he was reading and speaking, because he always had a ready-to-use clear and precise phrase for each established or accepted idea.”} \cite[p.~13]{51} Thus, owing to the efforts of Moscow Society of Mathematics and V.Y. Zinger, Russian historians of science were able to read the work of M. Chasles, acknowledged leader of French school of geometry of that time, in their native language. No doubt, the thorough understanding and analysis of this work was conducive to identifying historical links of fundamental scientific ideas in geometry.
Analysing translations made in the late $19^{th}$ century, a small but “legislative” work of Dedekind, \textit{Stetigkeit und Irrationalzahlen (Continuity and irrational numbers)} published in Braunschweig in 1872 should not be overlooked. \textbf{Richard Dedekind} (1831--1916), German mathematician who was awarded doctoral degrees at the Universities of Oslo, Zurich, and Braunschweig, member of Berlin (1880), Roman, and French (1900) Academies of Sciences, author of classic works devoted to the substantiation of the theory of real numbers. The above book sets forward (as the author himself stated in the preface to his other book \textit{“My attention was first directed towards the considerations which form the subject of this pamphlet in the autumn of 1858. As professor in the Polytechnic School in Zurich I found myself for the first time obliged to lecture upon the elements of the differential calculus and felt more keenly than ever before the lack of a really scientific foundation for arithmetic. The theory of irrational numbers… is based on the phenomenon occurring in the domain of rational numbers which I designate by term cut and which I was the first to investigate carefully; it culminates in the proof of the continuity of the new domain of real numbers. It appears to me to be somewhat simpler, I might say easier, then the two theories different from it and from each other, which have been proposed by Weierstrass and G. Cantor, and which likewise are perfectly rigorous.”} \cite[p.~36]{52}
This work was translated by R.O. Shatunovsky and published in Odessa in 1894 in a journal \textit{Vestnik opytnoj fiziki i ehlementarnoj matematiki (Bulletin of Experimental Physics and Elementary Mathematics)} (Nos. 191--192) (reprinted in 1923) \cite{53}. The importance of the above translation was clearly explained in the review of a famous Russian methodologist teacher S.I. Shohor-Trotsky, which was published in a pedagogical magazine \textit{Russian School. “One can hardly get into the current idea of irrational numbers without reading authentic sources such as Dedekind’s work published as translated by Mr. Shatunovsky,} wrote Shohor-Trotsky, \textit{… In the Russian translation concerned, which was perfectly made by Mr. Shatunovsky who demonstrated great love to his job, the translator’s preface he prepared with respect to George Cantor, the appendix which comprises the theorem on the existence of transcendental numbers, and even the translator’s notes, which, although brief, are extremely useful for the reader who reads Dedekind for the first time, all these deserve attention.”} \cite{54}
The translator, \textbf{Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky} (1859--1929), was a mathematician, then privat-dozent, subsequently professor at Novoros\-siysk University, one of the founders of Odessa mathematical school.
\begin{figure}[th!]
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig25Shatunovsky1.jpg}}
\caption{\label{NLrys25} Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky (1859-1929).\protect\footnotemark.}
\end{figure}\footnotetext{\cite{CzNG1940:Shatunovskij}}
Born to a family of a craftsman, Samuil Shatunovsky graduated from a non-classical secondary school in Herson and had no right to enter a university without a gymnasium certificate. Having studied for some time at the Technological Institute and thereafter, at the Institute of Railway Engineers in St. Petersburg, he was admitted to St. Petersburg University as an auditor to study mathematics, as he was seriously absorbed in this science by that time. He had a chance to attend lectures of such coryphaei as P.L. Chebyshev, E.I. Zolotarev, A.N. Korkin, Y.V. Sokhotsky. Thereafter, he lived in Switzerland for two years, where he attended lectures of H. Weber, famous algebraist of that time. When he returned to Russia, he travelled in the south of Russia, making ends meet by giving private lessons. As of 1893, he settled in Odessa, where he first \textit{actively contributed to a journal Bulletin of Experimental Physics and Elementary Mathematics}, and subsequently became a secretary of the Department of Mathematics of Novorossiysk Society of Natural Philosophers (1898--1914). In 1905, Shatunovsky was elected privat-dozent at Novorossiysk University \textit{“after R.P. Yaroshenko, I.V. Sleshinsky, I.Y. Timchenko, and V.F. Kagan had procured a permission of the Ministry of Public Education for him to pass Master’s examinations and Shatunovsky successfully passed these examinations in 1904.”} \cite{55} His main works pertain to algebra. However, we would especially note Shatunovsky’s achievements as a teacher, populariser of science, and one of the founders of \textit{Mathesis}, Odessa publishing house \cite{56}. The republishing dates of the above Dedekind’s work (1906, 1909, 1914, 1923) are the vivid evidence of the expedience of this publication and demand for it.
Gradually, the choice of works in the history of mathematics to be translated became more goal-oriented and conscious. Thus, in the early $20^{th}$ century (1902) a translation of a work of \textbf{Paul Tannery} (1843-1901), who was rather reputable in West Europe, was published. Paul Tannery was a French mathematician and historian of mathematics, professor of Greek and Latin Philosophy at Collège de France. His works in the history of ancient science have become classical, and his translations of the ancient Greeks have been used by scientists to this day. \textit{Pour l’histoire de la science hellène} (Paris, Félix Alcan, 1887) was the first of the three of his works translated into Russian.
\begin{figure}[th!]
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig26Taneryn171182.jpg}}
\caption{\label{NLrys26} P.Tannery in translation of M. Volynova, S. Tsereteli, L. Radlov, G. Tsereteli, 1902.\protect\footnotemark.}
\end{figure}\footnotetext{\cite{CzNG1940:Shatunovskij}}
This was a collaborative translation made by four translators: \textbf{M.I Volynova}, \textbf{R.I. Tsereteli}, Prof. \textbf{E.L. Radlov}, and \textbf{G.F. Tsereteli} \cite{57}. The author divided his book into two parts. The first one set forth Tannery’s view of the history of ancient systems of philosophy (before Socrates), and the second one comprised his translations of fragments from works of ancient philosophers. It is evident that the contents of the treatise was very specific. Therefore, an interdisciplinary team was engaged to translate it. However, there were no mathematicians among the translators. Thus, G.F. Tsereteli translated doxography and fragments (other than the fragments from Empedocles) from Ancient Greek, and E.L. Radlov translated fragments from Empedocles. Prof. A.I. Vvedensky wrote a preface to the Russian publication. There is another preface in the Appendix to Chapter XIV, which was written by Prof. G.F. Tsereteli.
\textbf{Grigory Filimonovich Tsereteli} (1870-1938) was an Orientalist, specialist in papyruses, and professor at St. Petersburg University.
\begin{figure}[th!]
\centerline{\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{Fig27cereteli-grigorij-filimonovich.jpg}}
\caption{\label{NLrys27} Grigory Filimonovich Tsereteli (1870-1938) .\protect\footnotemark.}
\end{figure}\footnotetext{\cite{NVS1969:Cereteli}}
His tragic fate was briefly described as follows: \textit{“As of 1930, incorporated in the Academic Case} ["Academic Affairs" (or "The Case of Academician S.F. Platonov") - a criminal case fabricated by the Joint State Political Directorate against a group of scientists of the Academy of Sciences and a group of local historians in 1929--1931 in Leningrad. 115 people had gone through the case, including 4 academicians, who were accused of plotting to overthrow the Soviet power]; \textit{in February 1931, arrested. He was put in prison and set free in six months, probably, thanks to his wife’s letter to I.V. Stalin. In spring 1938, he was arrested again and in a year, sentenced to 10 years of confinement in prison. He died allegedly while he was transferred to another prison in an echelon. According to other sources, he was shot dead in prison. His place of death is unknown. He was rehabilitated posthumously.”} \cite{NL58Biografia:Tsereteli} His wife, \textbf{R.I. Tsereteli}, was probably a historian or philologist. \textbf{Ernest Leopoldovich Radlov} was a historian, philologist, philosopher, professor, worked in St. Petersburg. We found no information on \textbf{M.I. Volynova}. \textbf{Alexandre Ivanovich Vvedensky} (1856--1925) was a Russian philosopher and idealist, psychologist, founder of the St. Petersburg first Philosophical Society, professor of St. Petersburg University. It should be noted that the work discussed herein above was not intended for amateurs, it was designed for single-discipline experts specialising in the history of science.
Provincial scientific centres affiliated with Russian local universities, which consolidated naturalists and historians of science, eventually began increasingly frequently address various issues in the history of basic mathematical ideas. Thus in Kazan, under the direction of Prof. \textbf{A.V. Vasiliev} (1853--1929), one of the founders of physical and mathematical section of the Society of Natural Philosophers at Imperial Kazan University, they translated and published numerous works of foreign mathematicians. Another work of R. Dedekind, which appeared in 1888 and was entitled \textit{What are numbers and what they should be?}, was devoted to statement of the theory of real numbers using the \textit{‘method of Dedekind cut’}. This work was bound to catch the interest of Russian scientists and teachers. In 1905, N.N. Parfenov, one of Prof. Vasiliev’s students and privat-dozent of Kazan University, translated it into Russian. This work, which became a rare book, had never been republished until 2015. However, nowadays, this work was given a new lease of life owing to the new publication of its translation under the general editorship of G.I. Sinkevich. The latter added a detailed editor’s preface to this book describing Dedekind’s scientific path and investigations, analysing various ways of introducing the notion of a number and continuity, and providing the biography of translator N. Parfentiev \cite[p.~8--24]{59}.
\textbf{Nikolai Nikolaevich Parfentiev} (1877--1943) graduated from Ka\-zan University, Mathematical Section of the School of Physics and Mathematics, and was retained at the University to get prepared for professorship (1900--1902). In 1904, he was assigned to the Department of Pure Mathematics as privat-dozent. According to K.Z. Galimov, who was one of his students, having fallen under the influence of revolutionary-minded people, Parfentiev engaged in illegal activities among teachers in Kazan, participated in unrest among students in 1905, which was why he \textit{“was expelled from the University and gymnasium and was deprived of the right to live in collegiate towns. The University’s forward-looking professors came to the rescue of their alumnus and helped him go abroad instead of Petropavlovsk, Kazakstan, he had been assigned to.”} \cite[p.~627]{NL60FKZ1967:Par} He lived in Berlin, earning his living giving lessons and making translations. At the same time, he studied at Bernin University and University of Gottingen, attended lectures and seminars delivered by Klein, Hilbert, and Schwartz. In a year, having returned to Russia, Nikolai Nikolaevich was reinstated in his office, and in two years, the University sent him on an internship trip to finally prepare his Master’s thesis. We worked in libraries in Munich, Gottingen, Berlin, Paris, and Bordeaux, studying special issues in the theory of functions (1908-1910). Having returned back to Kazan, he presented a thesis entitled \textit{“Research in the theory of growth of function”} (1911) seeking for the Master’s degree and was granted professorship the same year. Back in 1900, Prof. Vasiliev, his teacher, formed a physico-mathematical student group at the Department. In 1913, this group was already headed by N.N. Parfentiev. His fluency in foreign languages (German, French, Latin, and Greek) enabled Nikolai Parfentiev to translate fragments from F. Klein’s \textit{Elementary Geometry} when he was still a student; then to successfully translate early in his teaching career, and subsequently, to extensively involve students, who were members of the abovementioned group and translated works by Poincare, Helmholtz, Kronecker, and Hankel \cite[p.~21]{59} under his direction. Many professors of Kazan mathematical school and representatives of other scientific schools of the USSR (P.A. Shirokov, B.M. Gagaev, V.A. Yablokov, B.A. Fuchs, K.P. Persidsky, and others) were N.N. Parfentiev’s students.
Another spectacular example of successful undertaking in the area of translations in Russia’s provinces was in Odessa academic community. A group of enthusiasts of science formed a Mathematical Department at Novorossiysk Society of Natural History [Natural Philosophers] in Odessa. \textbf{Ivan Yurievich Timchenko} (1863--1939) played a special role in arranging its work. Mathematician, historian of mathematics and mechanics, privat-dozent, he thereafter became a professor of Novorossiysk University (Odessa). As of 1888, Timchenko was an active member of the Mathematical Department and as of 1914, he headed the Department, often made reports and wrote for the \textit{Journal of Empiric Physics and Elementary Mathematics}, which was at that time published in Kiev and Odessa. It was owing to this Journal that one of his rigorous historical research studies came out. The editorial board of this Journal decided to have I. Heiberg’s book translated. This was a letter of Archimedes to Eratosthenes: \textit{“Method for Mechanical Theorems”} (1909) \cite{61}.
In 1906, \textbf{Johan Ludvig Heiberg} (1854--1928), Danish philologist and historian, found one of the Archimedes’ treatises, which was considered lost (\textit{“Archimedes’ palimpsest”}), in the library of the Church of the Holy Apostles in Istanbul, took photos of around two thirds of pages in the manuscript, and tried to reconstruct the treatise. The deliverable of his research was translated into Russian, and privat-dozent Timchenko wrote a preface and detailed comments to the translation, having placed these in front of the main text and entitled \textit{Archimedes and His Newly Found Work} \cite[p.~I--XV]{62}. It should be noted that this book was published by Mathesis publishing house in Odessa (1910--1925), which was acknowledged by the academic community to be the best one, as Mathesis engaged lead scientists of that time (Orest Khvolson, Ivan Sleshinsky, Sergey Bernstein, Ivan Timchenko, Igor Arnold) to translate the works they were going to publish. Let us also mention that the magazine \textit{Teachers’ Collection} published a review of this work by S. Bernstein in its December issue of 1910.
In 1896, \textbf{Florian Cajori} (1859--1930), American mathematician and historian of mathematics, Ph.D., professor of physics in Colorado College, published his research entitled \textit{A History of Elementary Mathematics with hints on methods of teaching}. Ivan Timchenko prepared this book as well as the previous one for publishing in Russia (1910) as the editor and translator. This book also comprised 69 detailed notes and 37 additions of this translator, some of them in the form of analytical reviews \cite{63}. In the preface, Ivan Yurievich gave reasons for choosing this Cajori’s work to translate it into Russian, having noted that this work \textit{“…leads …in the intelligibility and clarity of presentation, in the abundance of information and neat layout of the book, … and the author’s ability to reconcile facts in the history of science with general cultural history in a concise and eloquent manner makes this book interesting for those who are not just looking for information on the origin and first meaning of formulas and theorems from different sections of mathematics in works like this, but who mainly seek to understand the growth pattern of mathematical knowledge and development of key mathematical ideas.”} \cite[p.~III]{63} Interestingly, Timchenko recommended that, in addition to this translated publication, Russian readers should read \textit{Sketches on the history of development of physical and mathematical sciences in Russia} by V.V. Bobynin, as there was no information like that in Cajori’s book.
In his report on this publication to the Academic Committee of the Ministry of Public Education (MPE), Prof. B.M. Koyalovich noted: \textit{“Apart from the work of Prof. Cajori, the book under consideration comprises 17 appendices prepared by the editor of I.Y. Timchenko’s translation, and we believe that these appendices are of great importance for science, which are more valuable than Prof. Cajori’s book itself. I.Y. Timchenko regards individual points in the history of mathematics, however, his entire work …is based on authentic sources and evidences of its author’s outstanding conversance with the literature in the history of mathematics. The author provided quite a number of interesting quotations from vintage books and time after time corrected not only Cajori’s but Cantor’s errors as well.”} \cite[p.~3]{64} [(we are talking about Moritz Benedict Cantor).]
A landmark in the development of Russian history of geometry was publishing of R. Bonola’s \textit{Non-Euclidean geometry} in St. Petersburg. \textbf{Roberto Bonola} (1874--1911) was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, and historian of mathematics, graduate of the University of Bologna, teacher of mathematics at higher learning institutions in Pavia and Rome. He died a premature death because of illness. His scientific interests resided in the sphere of geometry, i.e. non-Euclidean and projective geometry. However, non-Euclidean geometry was uppermost. R. Bonola’s doctoral dissertation was devoted to non-Euclidean geometry, and he prepared the most complete list of references for it (1902) and an extensive bibliography for foundations of geometry in relation to the non-Euclidean geometry \cite{65}. Having further developed the part of his dissertation devoted to critical statement of history, Bonola set forth the history of non-Euclidean geometry in a separate publication (1907) beginning with attempts of \textbf{ancient Greeks, Arabs, and scientists of the Renaissance} to prove the Fifth Postulate and distinguished its development milestones. The book was a success and was translated into German, English, and Russian \cite{66} substantially immediately. A. Kulisher translated the book into Russian, and A.V. Vasiliev wrote a supplement entitled \textit{Regarding the attitude of N.I. Lobachevsky toward the theory of parallel lines until 1826}, which was incorporated in the Russian publication.
\textbf{Alexandre Ruvimovich Kulisher} (1875 -- not until 1915) was a Russian mathematician, teacher, author of manuals and articles in mathematics; translated works of European mathematicians from English, German, and Italian, and fiction. Alexandre Kulisher was born to a family of a Doctor of Medicine in Kiev; studied in St. Petersburg University. To learn methods of teaching at school, he attended several internships (in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark). He taught mathematics and physics. After 1917, Kulisher was a professor at higher learning institutions in Petrograde; as of 1923, a teacher at Leningrad State University (LSU); as of 1929, professor at LSU. In 1937, he was expelled from the All-Union Communist Party \textit{‘for loss of class vigilance’} and exiled to Vyatka (now known as Kirov), where he worked as a professor of the Department of Algebra and Geometry \cite{67}.
\textbf{Alexandre Vasilievich Vasiliev} (1853--1929) was a Russian mathematician, professor of Kazan University, one of the founders of Kazan Society of Physics and Mathematics, promoter of Lobachevsky’s ideas, author of numerous works in the pure mathematics and history of pure mathematics, and a wonderful teacher. \textit{“The vivid characteristic feature of academic thinking ...} [of A.V. Vasiliev] \textit{was consistency which joined together the profound historicism, philosophical thoroughness, rigorous mathematical analysis, and educational focus. … Looking into any mathematical problem, he was always curious about its history in the first place, because what was of real interest for him was the evolution of the idea.”} \cite{68} Small but capacious in its sense, his work about Lobachevsky’s views of the theory of parallels supplemented Bonola’s research in a most fortunate way and enabled him to provide a holistic view of the history of non-Euclidean geometry.
As we can see, the turn of the $20^{th}$ century, both in the centre and on the fringes, was marked by rather heavy translating activities. Translators translated works of western historians of mathematics, although numerous works of Russian scientists devoted to these issues had already been published in Russia. The interest in these translations did not fade away until the end of the period under consideration. In 1911, three publications appeared, which deserve particular attention. The first one was G. Darboux’ article, \textit{A study of development of geometrical methods}, translated by privat-dozent S. Sluginov and published in Kazan (1911) \cite{69}. As a geometer, \textbf{Jean Gaston Darboux} (1842--1917) had hardly had peers while alive. His contemporaries compared his talent to that of Euclid. According to D. Hilbert, \textit{“What Euclid had done in the third century B.C. by his work and by systematising works of Greek geometers, Darboux did in the late nineteenth century for modern geometry.”} \cite[p.~9--10]{70} Translations of any of Darboux’ works would of course be strongly sought-for by Russian mathematicians. However, this article was particularly awaited, as it introduced \textit{“the most important things in the history of development of geometry to the reader in a very concise and elegant manner.”} \cite[p.~5]{69} According to the translator, it was of interest not only for specialists but also for the public at large.
It is very little that is known about Sluginov, as he had to live in the horrible \textit{“times of change”}. \textbf{Serapion Petrovich Sluginov} (1879--??) graduated from Kazan University (School of Physics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematics) in 1906. As of 1910, he was a privat-dozent at this University and other higher learning institutions in Kazan. In this period, he published a book entitled \textit{Analytical Functions Theory} (Kazan, 1914). He also published his reviews in a Kazan journal \textit{Bulletin of Education and Upbringing} (e.g. 1914, Issue 3). After the coup of 1917--1919, he worked as a teacher at Samara University (1921), and subsequently moved to Perm where he became professor and headed the Department of Mathematics from 1921 to 1936. Due to the lack of skilled staff in Siberia, in 1930--1934, he concurrently worked (on a part-time basis) as professor and head of the department of mathematics at Perm Teachers’ Institute and Ural Industrial Teachers’ Institute in Sverdlovsk. Thereafter, he was roaming around the country: in 1938, Far East State University in Vladivostok; subsequently, Teachers’ Institutes in Tula and Sergiev Posad (1950–1955) \cite[p.~11]{71}.
It is remarkable that the issues related to grounds of mathematical sciences, which were only beginning to draw attention of Russian scientists, became the subject matter of special interest for a group of mathematicians from Odessa headed by Prof. I.V. Sleshinsky. It was he who translated into Russian the famous Bolzano’s work, \textit{Paradoxes of the Infinite}, which was published by F. Prihonski in 1851 based on the author’s posthumous manuscript \cite{72}. \textbf{Bernard Bolzano} (1781--1848) was an outstanding Czech mathematician, theologian, philosopher, and dean of the Department of Philosophy at Charles University in Prague. He was dismissed from the University for his political opinions and deprived from the opportunity of publishing his works. Many of them had never been published while he was alive. In his \textit{Paradoxes of the Infinite}, he anticipated G. Cantor’s set-theoretic ideas; introduced the notion of a set and one-to-one correspondence; proved the theorem on the existence of an accumulation point in any infinite limited set (Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem) \cite{73}.
\textbf{Ivan Vladislavovich Sleshinsky, Śleszyński} (1854--1931) was a Polish-Russian mathematician, Doctor of Mathematics, professor, a student of prof. E.F. Sabinin, specialist in variational calculus. Having graduated from Novorossiysk University (1875) and passed master’s examinations (1880), Jan (Ivan) Sleshinsky had a two-year internship at Berlin University, attended lectures of K. Weierstrass, L. Kronecker, E.E. Kummer, E.G. Bruns. In 1883, after he returned to Odessa, he defended his master's thesis entitled \textit{Research of the second variation of a simple integral}, and thereafter, doctoral thesis entitled \textit{To the theory of the least-squares method} ($\approx 1897$). Sleshinsky lectured at Novorossiysk University from 1883 to 1909 and was awarded the title of professor emeritus (1908). His main works were devoted to the theory of continued fractions, vindication of the least-squares method, theory of probabilities, mathematical logic, and foundations of mathematics \cite{74}. Ukrainian historians of mathematics noted the great influence of I.V. Sleshinsky on the development of mathematical research in Novorossiysk University. There is little information about the period from 1909 to 1917 in Sleshinsky’s life. All we know is that in these years he continued extensive collaboration with Mathesis publishing house, translating and editing for them. It is unclear when Sleshinsky emigrated. However, we know that in 1919--1924, he was professor of mathematics and logic at Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The most significant of his works were \textit{The Proof Theory} in two volumes (1925; 1929) and \textit{The Determinants Theory} (1926), both published already in Poland.
Bolzano’s book translated by I.V. Sleshinsky in Odessa was published in 1911. The editor’s preface to the translation preceded the work. In his preface, Sleshinsky drew the readers’ attention to Bolzano’s scientific archives which was stored in Vienna Court Library: \textit{“ten piles lettered A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,H,J. Only part of one pile contains lectures in ethics, all the rest being mathematics.”} \cite[p.~V]{72} It is evident that he was familiar firsthand with these materials, as well as with other works of this author, as subsequently, he listed the main discoveries in various spheres of mathematics, which had been made earlier than the authors after which these discoveries were named. First, he introduced certain notions, such as ‘upper; second, he established and developed properties of the infinite, \textit{“which formed the basis for Cantor’s theory”}; third, he considered the definition of the sum \textit{“on which H. Grassmann built its arithmetic.”} \cite[p.~V]{72} Furthermore, Sleshinsky noted \textit{“wonderful ideas … related to analysis vindication”} and some other outstanding ideas. However, in spite of his highest appreciation of Bolzano’s work, Sleshinsky took a critical look at the work he translated. He could not agree with certain views of Bolzano (in particular, in the area of metaphysics), although he justified them because \textit{“the most renowned mathematicians of this epoch shared his opinion”} \cite[p.~VI]{72}.
The third publication of those mentioned above, which was published in Odessa (Mathesis publishing house) also in 1911, is a translation of the work of F. Rudio, \textit{Archimedes, Huygens, Lambert, Legendre. Vier Abhandlungen über die Kreismessung. Deutsch herausgegeben und mit einer Übersicht über die Geschichte des Problemes von der Quadratur des Zirkels, von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf unsere Tage} (Teubner, Leipzig, 1892) \cite{75}. The author of this translation was a famous author in the West. \textbf{Ferdinand Rudio} (1856--1929) was a German and Swiss mathematician, historian of mathematics, one of the organisers of the International Congress of Mathematicians (1897). The bibliography of his works in the history of mathematics can be found in \cite[p.~389--390]{76}. It is notable that F. Rudio’s work was translated and edited by R. Bernstein. It was perhaps for the first time that Bernstein translated a work in the history of mathematics. Subsequently, the book saw countless reprints with additions.
\textbf{Sergei Natanovich Bernstein} (1880--1962) was a mathematician, professor (1907), Doctor of Pure Mathematics (Kharkov, 1914), Member of the Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) (1925) and Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929). Sergei Natanovich was born in Odessa to a family of a docent (associate professor) of Novorossiysk University. He obtained a higher education in Paris (in 1901--1902, completed a full course of Higher School of Electrical Engineering in Paris and was awarded a Diploma of Electrical Engineer; in 1902--1904, studied at the Department of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Sorbonne to be awarded the degree of a Doctor of Mathematics). At first, he lived and worked in St. Petersburg (1905--1908) and thereafter, at higher learning institutions in Kharkov (1908--1933), Leningrad, and Moscow \cite{77}. S.N. Bernstein’s main research studies were basically devoted to the theory of differential equations, the theory of approximation of functions by polynomials, and the theory of probabilities. However, he found time for the history of mathematics too, especially at the start of his teaching career. When he was still a privat-dozent in Odessa, Sergei Natanovich actively collaborated with \textit{Teachers’ Collection} magazine, editing articles and books. The monthly publication entitled \textit{Teachers’ Collection} was published in St. Petersburg at the Main Department of military education establishments in the period from 1864 to 1918 to \textit{“further the appropriate development of teaching and educational activities at Military Schools, Gymnasiums and Progymnasiums, and at Junker Schools.”} Whereas publications in this magazine cut across a range of key teaching issues, this magazine came into notice of teachers from civil institutions as well. The magazine had two sections: official and unofficial. The unofficial one comprised Appendices which gave pride of place to criticism and bibliography \cite{78}. Let us compromise the chronological sequence of our story and note that it was in the latter section where Bernstein published his reviews as of 1909. Among these reviews, we would single out those which were devoted to the history of mathematics:
\begin{itemize}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item Elements of Mathematics by Lazan. Translated from French // Teachers’ Collection, 1909, October, p. 323--325. (reviewed)
\item I. Heiberg. The New Work by Archimedes. The Letter of Archime\-des to Eratosthenes regarding some mechanical theorems. Translated by Mathesis // Teachers’ Collection, December, p. 619--620. (reviewed)
\item F. Cajori. The History of Elementary Mathematics. Translated under the editorship of I. Timchenko // Teachers’ Collection, March, p. 393--394. (reviewed)
\item Russian Mathematical Bibliography. Edited by Prof. D.M. Sintsov. Issue 1--2 for 1908--1909. Odessa, Mathesis, 1910--1912 // Teachers’ Collection, May, p. 623--624. (reviewed)
\item Jules Tannery. Basic Notions in Mathematics. St. Petersburg, 1914. // Teachers’ Collection, 1916, January, p. 110--112. (reviewed)
\end{itemize}
We would also note that another remarkable translation, which significantly expanded the information available to Russian readers on works of Western mathematicians devoted to the theory of trigonometric series, was made by S.N. Bernstein. It was an annotated edition of \textit{Trigonometric Series expansions} by Lejeune Dirichlet, B. Riemann, R. Lipschitz, annotated by P. Montel and published by Kharkov Mathematical Society as translated by G.A. Gruzintsev and S.N. Bernstein (1914, Kharkov). Furthermore, S.N. Bernstein had some works in the history of mathematics of his own. He had written them before 1917, however, the discussion thereof was included in subsequent materials devoted to the creation and development of the history of mathematics in Russia. And another interesting fact, which directly concerns the author of these reviews. Publishing house Mathesis, which introduced itself as a \textit{“nonfiction publishing house which publishes works relating to physical and mathematical sciences”}, placed information on the products it published on the last pages (p. 1--13) of appendices to the translation of \textit{Historical Overview of Elementary Geometry} (Odessa, 1912) made by E. Fourrey. The list of books, which were in preparation, included: \textit{EUCLID. THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ELEMENTS. Translated by Prof. D.M. Sintsov and privat-dozent S.N. Bernstein} \cite[p.~12]{79}. Unfortunately, the plans of the publication had failed and this translation had never been published.
We owe to \textit{Mathesis} publishing house issuing several small popular science publications in 1912 in Odessa. They were published in the \textit{Elementary Mathematics Library} series and were intended for general public. The series was devoted to the \textit{“development of the most important and interesting issues in elementary mathematics, which were covered from the historical and probably philosophical point of view, focusing on absolute comprehensibility of the content”}. All the reader had to know was elementary mathematics \cite{74}. Those were translations of W. Lietzmann’s \textit{Pythagorean Theorem. With some information on Fermat Theorem} \cite{80} and E. Fourrey’s \textit{Historical Overview of Elementary Geometry} \cite{79}. \textbf{Walter Lietzmann} (1880--1959), a student of Hilbert, was a German mathematician, teacher, populariser of mathematics, Gymnasium teacher, editor of a German instructional magazine, professor of teaching at Gottingen University \cite{81}. Later editions of his book were subsequently published several times (1934, 1960). Unfortunately, the translator was not mentioned. However, the entire series mentioned above was published under the direct editorship of R.O. Shatunovsky \cite{82}. The work of Emil Fourrey was translated by A.I. Bakov. \textbf{Afanasiy Ivanovich Bakov} taught physics at Odessa gymnasiums; worked at Mathesis publishing house part-time; and translated a lot of popular-science literature \cite{83}.
Another interesting translation from the same \textit{Elementary Mathematics Library} series was a work of a German teacher, professor Eugen Löffler (1883--1979), entitled \textit{Numbers and Number Systems…} translated by I.L. Levintov. This book was published under the general editorship of privat-dozent S.O. Shatunovsky. The author states in the preface to the book that the goal of this book is to \textit{“present numbers for a wide array of educated public against the background of cultural history … The author set himself the task of showing that numbers and number systems are closely associated with the cultural status of people and that they often form one of the diverse links between various nations and epochs.”} \cite[p.~3--4]{84} The narration was concluded by classifying the number systems summarized in a separate table and by considering the methods \textit{“used to combine individual numbers into a composite number in systems of various nations.”} \cite[p.~94]{84}. The book was written in a simple, clear, and intelligible manner, and was, in fact, suitable for any reader regardless of his level of competence. We intended to demonstrate the way historical and mathematical knowledge was popularised in Russia’s provinces using the example of this translation which was probably not very important for the development of Russian history of mathematics.
There was no translator’s preface in this book. However, we managed to find some information about I.L. Levintov himself. \textbf{Iosif L. Levintov} (18??--19??), PhD (Natural Sciences) [the degree awarded upon graduation from the university] who worked at Mathesis publishing house in Odessa, often translated articles and books from German and English, sometimes mentioning the editor’s name, other times under the editorship of \textit{Bulletin of Elementary Mathematics and Empiric Physics}. He died prematurely, and his wife, Maria Solomonovna Levintova, got married to a famous mathematician from Odessa, V.F. Kagan, who mentioned in his \textit{Biography} that I.L. Levintov was a follower of Machism and named his daughter after Ernst Mach with the consent of Mach himself. His daughter, Ernestina Iosifovna Levintov, became a Hispanist, PhD (Philology), and his son, Iosif Iosifovich Levintov became a physicist, Dr. Sci. (Physics and Mathematics) \cite{85}.
When several research studies appeared to address stepping up the logical rigor requirements for mathematical theories, basic mathematical notions began to be discussed and polished more often. One of the remarkable foreign works devoted to this issue was the book written by brothers \textbf{Jules and Paul Tannery} (J. Tannery. \textit{Basic Notions in Mathematics including an essay by P. Tannery: Basic information from the history of mathematics}). This book was republished thrice until 1914. It was this third publication which was in 1914 translated by N. Evreinov into Russian \cite{86}. The work of Jules Tannery (on pages 1--359) was devoted to pure mathematics. The author explained in the preface: \textit{“The proposed book is essentially a detailed presentation of mathematics under the programme of a philosophy class…”} \cite[p.~XIII]{86}. The essay of Paul Tannery (p. 360--406) is of special interest for us, because it discusses the most significant (in his opinion) moments in the history of development of mathematical theories:
\begin{enumerate}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item[I.] The origin of algebra.
\item[II.] How the Greeks understood the words ‘analysis’ and ‘synthesis” and their geometrical algebra.
\item[III.] Positive and negative.
\item[IV.] Curves studied by the ancients.
\item[V.] The beginning of using coordinates for graphic presentation of changing phenomena.
\item[VI.] The origin of infinitesimal calculus.
\end{enumerate}
In the end of the essay, the author provided historical information in astronomy.
So far, the identity of translator N. Evreinov has been established but presumably. Probably it was \textbf{Nikolai Nikolaevich Evreinov} (1879--1953), who was a playwright, historian, and theatre theorist, representative of bohemian St. Petersburg of 1910, who ended his days amongst Paris emigrants. In 1901, he graduated from St. Petersburg School of Law being awarded a silver medal and the rank of a titular counsellor. Thereafter, he served for the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Railways for thirteen years \cite{NL87Evreinov:Bezelianskii}. As it appears from his letters, somewhere in 1910--1914, he was in great need of cash and could make a little extra money at publishing houses, the more so since he spoke foreign languages fluently and had some experience in literary work too (e.g. his \textit{History of Corporal Punishment in Russia}, 1913).
In the early $20^{th}$ century, a fundamental work of \textbf{I. Tropfke} \textit{The History of Elementary Mathematics} in seven volumes (1902--1924), began to be published in Germany. This book saw countless reprints, and has been probably one of the most complete sources in the history of this branch of mathematics to the present time. In 1914, only the first part of the first volume was translated into Russian. This part was devoted to the history of arithmetic. To give you an idea of its contents, here is the description of contents of the translation: \textit{“Numbers at large. Measures. Whole Numbers. Fractions. Applied Computations. Rule of Three. Percentage Rule. Time Estimation. Calculation of Profits and Losses. Accounting Calculations. Tare Estimation. Mixing Rule. Partnership Rule. History of Promissory Notes.”} \cite{NL88Tropke1914:Istoria}
Chistiakov edited the Russian-language publication, while D.A. Bo\-ehm and R.E. Struve translated from German. By all appearances, the publishers had plans to have this major work further translated. However, further developments in the country made it impossible. \textbf{Dmitry Alexandrovich Boehm} (1880--1938), gentleman by birth, teacher, assistant professor in theory of mechanics at Moscow Higher Construction Institute, anarchist and visionist, embraced the revolution with enthusiasm. Subsequently, he worked as a teacher at Higher Military Communications School (1819); thereafter, at Military Teachers’ Institute and Frunze Military Academy (1926). In 1931, he came under the weight of repression, was accused \textit{“of participating in a counterrevolutionary organisation, creating and heading prohibited circles, and spreading anti-Soviet propaganda. Speaking about “prohibited circles”, they meant D.A. Bem’s participation in the work of a bibliographic circle run at the public library and reading room of Kropotkin Museum.”} \cite{NL89persons2018:Bem} In the case of the \textit{Order of Light}, Bem was first convicted and sentenced to five years of imprisonment; was kept in Yaroslavl detention facility for political prisoners; however, he was exiled to Tomsk before long; in 1934, transferred to Narym Kray, where the circuit session of the Military Division of the Supreme Court of the USSR sentenced him to the extreme penalty -- to be shot -- and the sentence was executed the same day (rehabilitated in 1975).
All we managed to learn about the second translator, \textbf{R.E. Struve}, was that he worked as a teacher of mathematics at learning institutions in Moscow.
\textbf{Ioasaf Ivanovich Chistiakov} (1870--1942) was a mathematician, teacher, educator, founder of the magazine entitled \textit{Mathematical Education} (1902), member of organizing committees in charge of arranging All-Russian Congresses of Teachers of Mathematics. He studied at the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Moscow University. Having graduated from the University in 1893, he presented his work entitled \textit{Bernoulli Numbers}, which was awarded a Gold Award and published in \textit{Transactions of Moscow University}. For his whole life he worked as a teacher at various secondary and higher learning institutions, was in charge of mathematical training of teachers at continuing education courses in Moscow and neighbouring towns. In the Soviet period, I.I. Chistiakov was one of the first \textit{“red”} professors of Moscow State University. He was fully engaged in preparing new curricula for schools and tertiary institutions, held a Chair at the Departments of Mathematics at various Schools of Moscow State University. However, in 1935, he was arrested and exiled to Tomsk, where he worked as a professor at Tomsk State University and Tomsk Politechnic Institute. His writings include around 70 works in mathematics, methodology, and history of mathematics \cite{NL90persons2018:Chistyakov}.
Publishing of I. Newton’s work entitled \textit{Mathematical Elements of Early Natural Philosophy} in Russian in 1915--16 marked the end of the period under consideration in translations of literature devoted to the history of mathematics in Russia. A.N. Krylov used London edition Newton's \textit{“Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”, Londini, 1687”} \cite{NL91Ny1915}. \textbf{Alexey Nikolaevich Krylov} (1863--1945) was a mechanician, shipbuilder, mathematician, member of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1916) and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, professor of Nikolaevsky Naval Academy and Institute of Railway Engineers, advisor at major shipyards in St. Petersburg.
Speaking of academician Krylov as a translator, let’s refer to the article of E.N. Poliakhova and others, in which the authors noted that Krylov worked really hard on the history of science, he presented works of classical authors to researchers, however, he often indulged to process these works, \textit{“as he did not consider these authors immune, he further developed their ideas, and made amendments to their works in need of new requirements.”} \cite{NL92Pol2015} The work on the translation of the famous Newton’s work began in 1914. The first and the second volumes (Book 1, Book II) were published in issues IV--V of \textit{News of Nikolaevsky Naval Academy}. The authors of the article noted that \textit{“his translation including brilliant comments made this most important work, Newton had written in Latin in a manner that was hard to understand, comprehensible for general reader.”} \cite{NL92Pol2015} It should be noted that certain diversion by A.N. Krylov from the then existing translating rules, which implied careful treatment of the primary source, can be easily understood. He sought to make the translated materials readily understandable and useful not only for historians of science but for experts as well.
We have not yet considered another type of translations. Those are translations of research studies of the most famous Western scientists regarding the most important issues in pure and applied mathematics, which won wide recognition in global science. These works were vital not only for those Russian scientists who studied mathematics and history of mathematics. They were vital for those representatives of younger generation who decided to twist fortune with science. A great number of these works began appearing in Russia beginning from the late $19^{th}$ century and especially in the early $20^{th}$ century at publishing houses in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, Odessa, Kiev, Kharkov. Those were works of R. Bolzano, Dirichlet, Riemann, Lipschitz, Dedekind, F. Klein, E. Borel, Poincare, and others. The rest of the translations, which make a fairly large number, are classified among later translations and are beyond the scope of our research. Furthermore, we have left out translations of educational mathematical literature, as this topic is worth being reviewed separately.
Finally, let us note another valuable source of information on the most important issues in mathematics of the $19^{th}$ -- early $20^{th}$ century mentioned by G.I. Sinkevich. In modern research studies in the history of mathematics, this source often lacks attention. It relates to translating, although indirectly. Those are reports of graduates of Russian universities, who were retained at West European tertiary institutions to get ready for professorship and to have two-year and longer internship working with the best representatives of the then contemporary science: \textit{“Many of them, attending lectures of European mathematicians and studying literature in libraries, included detailed review in the history and current status of the respective issue in their research papers, brought the most significant scientific books and articles with them, translated, and published them. We would mention works of R.O. Shatunovsky (first publications of translated Cantor’s and Dedekind's works of 1894--1896), I.Y. Timchenko (review of the theory of functions, 1892), V.L. Nekrasov (a most detailed review of the status of the set theory, 1908), A.V. Vasiliev (New Ideas in Mathematics series, 1913--1915).”} \cite[p.~22]{59}
\section{Conclusion}
\begin{enumerate}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
\item The stage of accumulation of knowledge in the history of mathematics by translating world scientists has no timeframes and runs in parallel with the development of the history of mathematics in Russia.
\item The approach to translating of creator-owned works in the course of the historical process substantially changed: from word-for-word non-specialist translations to texts processed by translators in order to adapt the contents to the goals dictated by actual practice to “careful” translating of historians of science aimed at preserving the author’s structure of the work and introducing the original to the reader. These changes were not linear, they were affected by socio-economic and political conditions prevailing in the period the translation was made.
\item At first, the source to be translated was chosen \textit{“on the convenience-based principle”} (depending on the language the translator knew better). For example, works of the ancients were often translated from a double or even triple translation of the original. In the $19^{th}$ century, translators began choosing sources more thoroughly, always making sure which one was closer to the original.
\item Translators’ personalities were also changing. In the first half of the $18^{th}$ century, translations were made by professional translators who spoke foreign languages but did not have deep expertise in mathematics. At the end of this century, natural scientists and teachers of physical and mathematical sciences, who had experience in translating foreign manuals and writing manuals of their own, came to replace them. The diversity of translators community in the late $19^{th}$ century stemmed from the comprehensive knowledge and great amount of education of the Russia’s Big League of scientists of the time.
\item The appearance of translations of works of contemporary Western authors devoted to the history of mathematics bespoke the emergence of enduring interest of Russian scientists and natural scientists in the history of the science and their willingness to study these problems. Furthermore, translators chose works to be translated not only with regard to the interest of researchers of the history of the science. They took into account the interests of the broad audience of readers.
\item The special series of translated Western scientific physical and mathematical literature, which appeared in progressive Russian publications, as well as the publishing houses themselves, which dealt with these translations and engaged high-class experts to work on these translations, like, for example, Mathesis, enables us to assert that, by the end of the $19^{th}$ -- beginning of the $20^{th}$ century, owing to this purposeful publishers’ activities, Russian readership had had access to research findings comparable to the access the Western readers had.
\item Russian history of mathematics owes the numerous works in the history of physical and mathematical sciences, which appeared in the end of the $19^{th}$ -- beginning of the $20^{th}$ century, to the above translations as well.
\end{enumerate}
As a matter of fact, we have not considered all translations of classical ancient authors and West European historians of mathematics in this work. However, we do hope that the works we selected have enabled us to create an accurate picture of this stage of the inception and evolvement of the Russian history of mathematics.
%\newpage
\medskip
%\nocite{NL25Arh1823}
\noindent{\large\bf References}\nopagebreak
\begin{thebibliography}{99}\itemsep1pt \parskip0pt \parsep0pt
%
\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{References}
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%25
%\bibitem{26}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Архимед. Псаммит, или Изчисление песку в пространстве равном шару неподвижных звезд / Пер. с греч. Ф. Петрушевского с примечаниями, и с присовокуплением Общей теории величин пропорциональных древних геометров. - СПб, 1824. - 95 с.}} (in Russian)%26. Arhimed. Psammit, ili Izchislenie pesku v prostranstve ravnom sharu nepodvizhnyh zvezd / Per. s grech. F. Petrushevskogo s primechaniyami, i s prisovokupleniem Obshchej teorii velichin proporcional'nyh drevnih geometrov. - SPb., 1824. - 95 s. (Archimedes. The Sand Reckoner). (in Russian)
%26
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%\bibitem{29}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Токарева Т.А. История математики в России. Рождение дисциплины // \textit{Историко-математические исследования.} - В.44. - 2005. - С.209--237.}} (in Russian)%Tokareva T.A. Istoriya matematiki v Rossii. Rozhdenie discipliny // \textit{Istoriko-matematicheskie issledovaniya.}- V.44. - 2005. - S.209--237. (History of Mathematics in Russia. The birth of the discipline). (in Russian)
%29
%\bibitem{30}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Восемь книг геометрии Евклида. Переведено с немецкого издания доктора Гартвинга воспитанниками Александровского Кременчугского реального училища Немировским и Бергером, под руководством Директора училища. Кременчуг. Типография Германа Розенталя. 1877. - 172 с., 9 л. черт. 21.}} (in Russian)%Vosem' knig geometrii Evklida. Perevedeno s nemeckogo izdaniya doktora Gartvinga vospitannikami Aleksandrovskogo Kremenchugskogo real'nogo uchilishcha Nemirovskim i Bergerom, pod rukovodstvom Direktora uchilishcha. Kremenchug. Tipografiya Germana Rozentalya. 1877. - 172 s., 9 l. chert. 21. (Eight books of Euclid's geometry). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{31}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Начала Эвклида с пояснительным введением и толкованиями. Ординарного профессора Императорского университета Св. Владимира М.Е. Ващенко-Захарченко. - Киев: Типография Императорского Университета Св. Владимира, 1880. - ХV, 747 с.}} (in Russian)%Nachala Evklida s poyasnitel'nym vvedeniem i tolkovaniyami. Ordinarnogo professora Imperatorskogo universiteta Sv. Vladimira M.E. Vashchenko-Zaharchenko. - Kiev: Tipografiya Imperatorskogo Universiteta Sv. Vladimira, 1880. - HV, 747s. (Euclid's Elements with an explanatory introduction and interpretations). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{32}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Зубов В.П. В.В. Бобынин и его труды по истории математики // \textit{Историко-математические исследования.} – В.15. - 1956. – С. 277--322.}} (in Russian)%Zubov V.P. V.V. Bobynin i ego trudy po istorii matematiki // \textit{Istoriko-matematicheskie issledovaniya.} – V.15. - 1956. – S. 277--322. (V. Bobynin and his works on the history of mathematics). (in Russian)
%32
%\bibitem{33}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Начала Евклида. Книги I--VI. Пер. с греческого и комментарии Д.Д. Мордухай-Болтовского при редакционном участии М.Я. Выгодского и И.Н. Веселовского. - М.-Л.: ГИТТЛ, 1950. - 447 с.}} (in Russian)%Nachala Evklida. Knigi I--VI. Per. s grecheskogo i kommentarii D.D. Morduhaj-Boltovskogo pri redakcionnom uchastii M.YA. Vygodskogo i I.N. Veselovskogo. - M.-L.: GITTL, 1950. - 447 s. (Euclid's Elements. Books I-VI). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{34}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Геометрия древних. Преподавателя Одесской третьей гимназии М. Панченко. – Одесса, 1883. – 10с.}} (in Russian)%Geometriya drevnih. Prepodavatelya Odesskoj tret'ej gimnazii M. Panchenko. – Odessa, 1883. – 10 s. (The geometry of the ancient peoples). (in Russian)
%34
%\bibitem{35}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Сообщения и протоколы заседаний Математического Общества при Императорском Харьковском университете. - 1880. – В.2. - С. 129--135.}} (in Russian)%Soobshcheniya i protokoly zasedanij Matematicheskogo Obshchestva pri Imperatorskom Har'kovskom universitete. - 1880. – V.2. - S.129--135. (Communications and minutes of meetings of the Mathematical Society of the Imperial Kharkov University). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{36}Montucla J.-E. Histoire des Math\'ematiques, dans laquelle ou rend compte de leur progr\'es depuis leur origine jusqu'\`a nos jours etc. Paris, 1758. T. 1.
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%\bibitem{37}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Кочеткова Н.Д. \href{http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=574}{Богданович Петр Иванович.}}} (in Russian)%Kochetkova N.D.\href{http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=574}{Bogdanovich Petr Ivanovich. (Peter Ivanovich Bogdanovich).} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=574: 27.03.18.}
%37
%\bibitem{38}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Монтюкла Ж.-Э. История математики. Перевод П.И. Богдановича // Академические известия. – 1779--1781.}} (in Russian)%Montyukla ZH.-EH. Istoriya matematiki. Perevod P.I. Bogdanovicha // Akademicheskie izvestiya. – 1779--1781. (History of mathematics). (in Russian)
%38
%\bibitem{39}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Ленорман Ф. Об открытии египетского папируса, содержащего отрывок из геометрии в приложении к межеванию. Перевод Д. Планера // \textit{Горный журнал.} – Ч.1. - 1868. – С. 300--301.}} (in Russian)%Lenorman F. Ob otkrytii egipetskogo papirusa, soderzhashchego otryvok iz geometrii v prilozhenii k mezhevaniyu. Perevod D. Planera // \textit{Gornyj zhurnal.} – CH.1. - 1868. – S.300--301. (On the discovery of the Egyptian papyrus containing a fragment of the geometry in the appendix to boundary and topographic surveys). (in Russian)
%39
%\bibitem{40}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://dlib.rsl.ru/viewer/01002921692}{Русский библиографический словарь: Плавильщиков - Примо} / Изд. под наблюдением председателя Императорского Русского Исторического Общества А.А. Половцова. - Санкт-Петербург: тип. И. Н. Скороходова, 1910 [2]. - Т. 14. - 800 с.} (in Russian)%\href{http://dlib.rsl.ru/viewer/01002921692}{Russkij bibliograficheskij slovar': Plavil'shchikov - Primo} / Izd. pod nablyudeniem predsedatelya Imperatorskogo Russkogo Istoricheskogo Obshchestva A.A. Polovcova. - Sankt-Peterburg: tip. I. N. Skorohodova, 1910 [2]. - T. 14. - 800 s. (Russian Biographical Dictionary). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://dlib.rsl.ru/viewer/01002921692: 27.03.18.}
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%\bibitem{41}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Луи Фигье. \href{https://edu-lib.com/matematika-2/dlya-studentov/lui-fige-svetila-nauki-ot-drevnosti-d}{Светила науки от древности до наших дней. Великие ученые древности.} – Санкт-Петербург – Москва: Издание книгопродавца-типографа М. О. Вольфа, 1869. – 470 с. (с 38 портретами и гравюрами, снятыми с древних памятников)}} (in Russian)%Lui Fig'e. \href{https://edu-lib.com/matematika-2/dlya-studentov/lui-fige-svetila-nauki-ot-drevnosti-d}{Svetila nauki ot drevnosti do nashih dnej. Velikie uchenye drevnosti.} – Sankt-Peterburg – Moskva: Izdanie knigoprodavca-tipografa M. O. Vol'fa, 1869. – 470 s. (s 38 portretami i gravyurami, snyatymi s drevnih pamyatnikov) (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: https://edu-lib.com/matematika-2/dlya-studentov/lui-fige-svetila-nauki-ot-drevnosti-d: 27.03.18.}
%41
%\bibitem{42}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://dspace.bsu.edu.ru/bitstream/123456789/20927/1/Strahov_ukasatel.pdf}{Николай Николаевич Страхов: философ, литературный критик, переводчик.}} (in Russian)%\href{http://dspace.bsu.edu.ru/bitstream/123456789/20927/1/Strahov_ukasatel.pdf}{Nikolaj Nikolaevich Strahov: filosof, literaturnyj kritik, perevodchik.} (Nikolay Strakhov: philosopher, literary critic, translator). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://dspace.bsu.edu.ru/bitstream/123456789/20927/1/Strahov_ukasatel.pdf: 27.03.18.}
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%\bibitem{43}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Луи Фигье. Светила науки от древности до наших дней. Великие ученые древности. В 3-х томах. - Санкт-Петербург - Москва: Издание М. О. Вольфа, 1869--1873.}} (in Russian)%Lui Fig'e. Svetila nauki ot drevnosti do nashih dnej. Velikie uchenye drevnosti. V 3-h tomah. - Sankt-Peterburg - Moskva: Izdanie M. O. Vol'fa, 1869--1873. (Luminaries of science from antiquity to the present day. The great scholars of antiquity). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{44}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Рецензия на книгу «История математических наук» доктора Генриха Зутера… // Журнал Министерства Народного Просвещения. - Часть 193. – 1877, октябрь, отд. 3. – С. 37--41.}} (in Russian)%Recenziya na knigu «Istoriya matematicheskih nauk» doktora Genriha Zutera… // ZHurnal Ministerstva Narodnogo Prosveshcheniya. - CHast' 193. – 1877, oktyabr', otd. 3. – S. 37--41. (Review of the book "The History of Mathematical Sciences" Dr. Henry Zutera…). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{45}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Зутер Г. История математических наук. – Ч.1. С древнейших времен до конца XVI столетия. Перевел с некоторыми изменениями и дополнениями со 2-го немецкого издания Антон Мануйлов. – Кишинев, 1876. - 192 c.}} (in Russian)%Zuter G. Istoriya matematicheskih nauk. – CH.1. S drevnejshih vremen do konca XVI stoletiya. Perevel s nekotorymi izmeneniyami i dopolneniyami so 2-go nemeckogo izdaniya Anton Manujlov. – Kishinev, 1876. - 192 c. (History of Mathematics. - Part 1. From ancient times to the end of the XVI century). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{46}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Тарнакин В., Соловьева Т. \href{http://imwerden.de/pdf/bessarabskie_istorii_2011.pdf}{Бессарабские истории.} Историко-краеведческие журналистские расследования. – 2011. – С. 233--236.}} (in Russian)%Tarnakin V., Solov'eva T. \href{http://imwerden.de/pdf/bessarabskie_istorii_2011.pdf}{Bessarabskie istorii.} Istoriko-kraevedcheskie zhurnalistskie rassledovaniya. – 2011. – S.233-236. (Bessarabian history. Historical and local lore investigative journalism) (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://imwerden.de/pdf/bessarabskie_istorii_2011.pdf: 27.03.18.}
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\bibitem{47}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Тисандье Г. Мученики науки. Перевод с французского Ф. Павленкова. - Спб., тип. А. М. Котомина, 1880. - 360 с.}} (in Russian)%Tisand'e G. Mucheniki nauki. Perevod s francuzskogo F. Pavlenkova. - Spb., tip. A. M. Kotomina, 1880. - 360 s. (Martyrs of science). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{48}{\selectlanguage{russian}{\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Павленков,_Флорентий_Фёдорович}{Павленков Флорентий Федорович} – Wikipedia.}} (in Russian)%\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Павленков,_Флорентий_Фёдорович}{Pavlenkov Florentij Fedorovich} – Wikipedia. (Pavlenkov Florentius F). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Павленков,_Флорентий_Фёдорович: 27.03.18.}
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\bibitem{49}{\selectlanguage{russian}{История геометрии, сочинение Шаля, перевод с французского [В.Я. Цингера] // Математический сборник. – 1870--1880. – Т.V--X. Отдел второй (Особое приложение).}} (in Russian)%Istoriya geometrii, sochinenie SHalya, perevod s francuzskogo [V.YA. Cingera] // Matematicheskij sbornik. – 1870--1880. – T.V--X. Otdel vtoroj (Osoboe prilozhenie). (History of geometry, composition Shalya). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{50}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Шаль М.{\href{http://bookre.org/reader?file=444142&pg=4}{Исторический обзор происхождения и развития геометрических методов.} Т.1--2. М., Моск. мат. о-во, 1883. (Т.1. История геометрии. II+307 с.; Т. 2. Примечания. IV+428 с.).}}} (in Russian)%SHal' M. \href{http://bookre.org/reader?file=444142&pg=4}{Istoricheskij obzor proiskhozhdeniya i razvitiya geometricheskih metodov.} T.1--2. M., Mosk. mat. o-vo, 1883. (T.1. Istoriya geometrii. II+307 s.; T. 2. Primechaniya. IV+428 s.). (Historical overview of the origins and development of geometric methods). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://bookre.org/reader?file=444142&pg=4: 27.03.18.}
%50
\bibitem{51}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Андреев К.А. Василий Яковлевич Цингер, его жизнь и деятельность // \textit{Математический сборник}, 1911. – Т.28. - №1. – С. 3--39.}} (in Russian)%Andreev K.A. Vasilij YAkovlevich Cinger, ego zhizn' i deyatel'nost' // \textit{Matematicheskij sbornik}, 1911. – T.28. - №1. – S. 3--39. (Vasily Y. Zinger, his life and work). (in Russian)
%51
\bibitem{52}Dedekind, Richard. {\href{https://archive.org/stream/essaysintheoryof00dedeuoft#page/36/mode/2up}{Essays on the Theory of Numbers.} Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1901.} %[Online]\footnote{Available from URL: https://archive.org/stream/essaysintheoryof00dedeuoft#page/36/mode/2up: 27.03.18.}
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\bibitem{53}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Дедекинд Р. Непрерывность и иррациональные числа. Перевод С.О. Шатуновского // \textit{Вестник опытной и экспериментальной физики.} – Одесса, 1894. - № 191--192.}} (in Russian)%Dedekind R. Nepreryvnost' i irracional'nye chisla. Perevod S.O. SHatunovskogo // \textit{Vestnik opytnoj i ehksperimental'noj fiziki.} – Odessa, 1894. - № 191--192. (Continuity and irrational numbers). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{54}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Дедекинд Р. {\href{http://www.mathesis.ru/book/dedekind}{Непрерывность …} - Mathesis.Ru. Из отзывов. С. Шохор-Троцкий С. Русская Школа, октябрь, 1907.}}} (in Russian)%Dedekind R.{\href{http://www.mathesis.ru/book/dedekind}{Nepreryvnost' …} - Mathesis.Ru. Iz otzyvov. S. SHohor-Trockij S. Russkaya SHkola, oktyabr', 1907. (Continuity ... - Mathesis.Ru. From reviews).} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://www.mathesis.ru/book/dedekind: 27.03.18.}
%54
\bibitem{55}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Рикун И. \href{http://odessa-memory.info/index.php?id=306}{Шатуновский Самуил Осипович.}}} (in Russian)%Rikun I.{\href{http://odessa-memory.info/index.php?id=306}{SHatunovskij Samuil Osipovich. (Shatunovskii Samuel Osipovich)} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://odessa-memory.info/index.php?id=306: 27.03.18.}
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\bibitem{56}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Рикун И.Э. К истории одесского книгоиздательства «Матезис» (1904--1925) // \textit{Мир библиографии.} - 2003. - N 6. - С. 32--36.}} (in Russian)%Rikun I.EH. K istorii odesskogo knigoizdatel'stva «Matezis» (1904--1925) // \textit{Mir bibliografii.} - 2003. - N 6. - S. 32--36. (On the history of the Odessa publishing house "Mathesis" (1904-1925). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{57}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Таннери П. Первые шаги древнегреческой науки. Перевод М.И Волыновой, С.И. Церетели, проф-в Э.Л. Радлова и Г.Ф. Церетели с предисловием проф. А.И. Введенского. СПб, 1902.}} (in Russian)%Tanneri P. Pervye shagi drevnegrecheskoj nauki. Perevod M.I Volynovoj, S.I. Cereteli, prof-v EH.L. Radlova i G.F. Cereteli s predisloviem prof. A.I. Vvedenskogo. SPb., 1902. (The first steps of ancient Greek science). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{58}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Биографика СПбГУ. \href{http://bioslovhist.history.spbu.ru/component/fabrik/details/1/686.html}{Церетели Григорий (Григол) Филимонович.}}} (in Russian)%Biografika SPbGU. \href{http://bioslovhist.history.spbu.ru/component/fabrik/details/1/686.html}{Cereteli Grigorij (Grigol) Filimonovich. (Tsereteli Gregory (Grigol) Filimonovich).} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://bioslovhist.history.spbu.ru/component/fabrik/details/1/686.html: 27.03.18.}
%58
\bibitem{59}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Дедекинд Р. \href{http://www.spbgasu.ru/upload-files/vuz_v_licah/publish/sinkevich_gi/66_deidi.pdf}{Что такое числа и для чего они служат?} Перевод с немецкого приват-доцента Н. Парфентьева / Под общей ред. Г.И. Синкевич. - М.-Ижевск: ИКИ, 2015. - 98 с.}} (in Russian)%Dedekind R. \href{http://www.spbgasu.ru/upload-files/vuz_v_licah/publish/sinkevich_gi/66_deidi.pdf}{CHto takoe chisla i dlya chego oni sluzhat?} Perevod s nemeckogo privat-docenta N. Parfent'eva / Pod obshchej red. G.I. Sinkevich. - M.-Izhevsk: IKI, 2015. - 98 s. (What is the number and what they are?). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://www.spbgasu.ru/upload-files/vuz_v_licah/publish/sinkevich_gi/66_deidi.pdf: 27.03.18.}
%59
%\bibitem{NL60FKZ1967:Parfentiev}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Галимов К.З. \href{http://www.mathnet.ru/links/bc84934460ec5f3980ae3e15ae016280/kutpo585.pdf}{Николай Николаевич Парфентьев (к 90-летию со дня рождения)} // \textit{Исследования по теории пластин и оболочек.} – 1967. – Вып.5. – С. 626--633.}} (in Russian)%Galimov K.Z. \href{http://www.mathnet.ru/links/7861ea4c91c32cc7a7bf8d70063d4114/kutpo585.pdf}{Nikolaj Nikolaevich Parfent'ev (k 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya)} // \textit{Issledovaniya po teorii plastin i obolochek.} – 1967. – Vyp.5. – S. 626--633. (Nikolai Parfentev (the 90th anniversary). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://www.mathnet.ru/links/7861ea4c91c32cc7a7bf8d70063d4114/kutpo585.pdf: 27.03.18.}
%60
\bibitem{61}{\selectlanguage{russian}{\href{http://library.opu.ua/upload/files/library/Timchenko_RU2.doc}{Тимченко Иван Юрьевич.}}} (in Russian) %\href{http://library.opu.ua/upload/files/library/Timchenko_RU2.doc}{Timchenko Ivan YUr'evich.} (Timchenko Ivan Yu). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://library.opu.ua/upload/files/library/Timchenko_RU2.doc: 27.03.18.}
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\bibitem{62}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Проф. И. Гейберг. Новое сочинение Архимеда. Послание Архимеда к Эратосфену о некоторых теоремах механики. Перевод с немецкого под ред. «Вестника опытной физики и элементарной математики». С предисловием приват-доцента И.Ю. Тимченко. Одесса: Mathesis, 1909. – 27с. + I--XV.}} (in Russian) %Prof. I. Gejberg. Novoe sochinenie Arhimeda. Poslanie Arhimeda k EHratosfenu o nekotoryh teoremah mekhaniki. Perevod s nemeckogo pod red. «Vestnika opytnoj fiziki i ehlementarnoj matematiki». S predisloviem privat-docenta I.YU. Timchenko. Odessa: Mathesis, 1909. – 27s. + I--XV. ((The new work of Archimedes. Message from Archimedes to Eratosthenes of some theorems of mechanics). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{63}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Кэджори Ф. История элементарной математики / Ф. Кэджори; пер. с англ. под ред. И. Тимченко. - Одесса: Mathesis, 1910. - 368 с.}} (in Russian) %Kehdzhori F. Istoriya ehlementarnoj matematiki / F. Kehdzhori; per. s angl. pod red. I. Timchenko. - Odessa: Mathesis, 1910. - 368 s. (The history of elementary mathematics). (in Russian)
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\bibitem{64}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Кэджори Ф. История элементарной математики: с указаниями на методы преподавания / Ф. Кэджори; пер. с англ. под ред., с примеч. и прибавлениями И. Ю. Тимченко. - 2-е изд., испр. и доп. - Одесса: Mathesis, 1917. - 478 с.}} (in Russian) %Kehdzhori F. Istoriya ehlementarnoj matematiki: s ukazaniyami na metody prepodavaniya / F. Kehdzhori; per. s angl. pod red., s primech. i pribavleniyami I. YU. Timchenko. - 2-e izd., ispr. i dop. - Odessa: Mathesis, 1917. - 478 s. (The history of elementary mathematics: the instructions on the teaching methods). (in Russian)
%64
\bibitem{65}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Кулишер А. {\href{http://www.vofem.ru/ru/articles/56803/}{Памяти Роберто Бонола} // \textit{Вестник опытной физики и элементарной математики.} - 1912. - № 568. - С.103--104.}}} (in Russian) %Kulisher A. {\href{http://www.vofem.ru/ru/articles/56803/}{Pamyati Roberto Bonola} // \textit{Vestnik opytnoj fiziki i ehlementarnoj matematiki.} - 1912. - № 568. - S.103--104. (Memory Roberto Bonola). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://www.vofem.ru/ru/articles/56803/: 27.03.18.}
%65
\bibitem{66}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Бонола Р. Неевклидова геометрия. Критико-историческое исследование ее развития, дополненное заметкой А.В. Васильева «Об отношении Н.И. Лобачевского к теории параллельных линий до 1826 г. / [Пер. с итал. А.Р. Кулишера] - СПб.: тип. Т-ва «Общественная польза», 1910. - 213 с. с 80 рис.}} (in Russian) %Bonola R. Neevklidova geometriya. Kritiko-istoricheskoe issledovanie ee razvitiya, dopolnennoe zametkoj A.V. Vasil'eva «Ob otnoshenii N.I. Lobachevskogo k teorii parallel'nyh linij do 1826 g.» / [Per. s ital. A.R. Kulishera] - SPb.: tip. T-va «Obshchestv. pol'za», 1910. - 213 s. s 80 ris. (Non-Euclidean geometry. Critical-historical study of its development, supplemented memo A.V. Vasilyev «The Attitude NI Lobachevski to the theory of parallel lines to 1826»). (in Russian)
%66
\bibitem{67}{\selectlanguage{russian}{История математического образования на Вятке. \href{http://mathkaf.ucoz.ru/publ/k/kulisher_aleksandr_ruvimovich/11-1-0-47}{Кулишер Александр Рувимович.}}} (in Russian) %Istoriya matematicheskogo obrazovaniya na Vyatke. \href{http://mathkaf.ucoz.ru/publ/k/kulisher_aleksandr_ruvimovich/11-1-0-47}{Kulisher Aleksandr Ruvimovich.} (The history of mathematical education at Vyatka. Kulisher Alexander Ruvimovich). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://mathkaf.ucoz.ru/publ/k/kulisher_aleksandr_ruvimovich/11-1-0-47: 27.03.18.}
%67
\bibitem{68}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Садыкова Е.Р. \href{http://kpfu.ru/staff_files/F828265124/Vasilev.pdf}{Педагогические взгляды выдающегося казанского математика Александра Васильевича Васильева.} - Казань: Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет.}} (in Russian) %Sadykova E.R. \href http://kpfu.ru/staff_files/F828265124/Vasilev.pdf}{Pedagogicheskie vzglyady vydayushchegosya kazanskogo matematika Aleksandra Vasil'evicha Vasil'eva.} - Kazan': Kazanskij (Privolzhskij) federal'nyj universitet. (Pedagogical attitudes outstanding mathematician Alexander Vasilyev from Kazan). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://kpfu.ru/staff_files/F828265124/Vasilev.pdf: 27.03.18.}
%68
\bibitem{69}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Дарбу Г. Этюд о развитии геометрических методов. Перевод с французского, разрешённый автором. Приват-доцента С. Слугинова. Казань: Тип.-лит. Т. Д. В. Еремеев и А. Шашабрин, 1911.}} (in Russian) %Darbu G. EHtyud o razvitii geometricheskih metodov. Perevod s francuzskogo, razreshyonnyj avtorom. Privat-docenta S. Sluginova. Kazan': Tip.-lit. T. D. V. Eremeev i A. SHashabrin, 1911. (Etude in of the development of geometric methods). (in Russian)
%69
\bibitem{70}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Полищук Е.М. Эмиль Борель (1871--1956). – Л: Наука, 1980. – 169с.}} (in Russian) %Polishchuk E.M. EHmil' Borel' (1871--1956). – L [Leningrad]: Nauka, 1980. – 169 s. (Emile Borel (1871--1956)). (in Russian)
%70
\bibitem{71}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Яковлев В.И. Из истории физико-математического факультета ПГУ (1916--1960) // \textit{Вестник Пермского университета. Математика. Механика. Информатика.} – 2010. - Вып.3(3). – С.4--15.}} (in Russian) %YAkovlev V.I. Iz istorii fiziko-matematicheskogo fakul'teta PGU (1916--1960) // \textit{Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Matematika. Mekhanika. Informatika.} – 2010. - Vyp.3(3). – S. 4--15. (From the history of physics and mathematics faculty of PSU (1916--1960)). (in Russian)
%71
\bibitem{72}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Больцано Б. Парадоксы бесконечного / Перевод под редакцией И.В. Слешинского. Одесса: Mathesis, 1911. - 119 c.}} (in Russian) %Bol'cano B. Paradoksy beskonechnogo / Perevod pod redakciej I.V. Sleshinskogo. Odessa: Mathesis, 1911. - 119 c. (Paradoxes of the infinite). (in Russian)
%72
\bibitem{73}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Колядко В.И. Бернард Больцано. Серия «Мыслители прошлого». - М: Мысль, 1982. - 198 с.}} (in Russian) %Kolyadko V.I. Bernard Bol'cano. Seriya «Mysliteli proshlogo». - M: Mysl', 1982. - 198 s. (Bernard Bolzano). (in Russian)
%73
\bibitem{74}{\selectlanguage{russian}{\href{http://100v.com.ua/en/node/6136}{Слешинский Иван Владиславович.} Знаменитые, великие, гениальные люди.}} (in Russian) %\href{http://100v.com.ua/en/node/6136}{Sleshinskij Ivan Vladislavovich.} Znamenitye, velikie, genial'nye lyudi. (Sleshinsky Ivan Vladislavovich. Famous, great, men of genius). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://100v.com.ua/en/node/6136: 27.03.18.}
%74
\bibitem{75}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Архимед, Гюйгенс, Лежандр, Ламберт. О квадратуре круга с приложением истории вопроса, составленной проф. Ф. Рудио, проф. Цюрихского политехникума. Перевод с нем. под редакцией приват-доцента С. Бернштейна, Харьковского Университета, с 21 чертежом. Изд-во Mathesis, Одесса, 1911, VIII, 155 с.}} (in Russian) %Arhimed, Gyujgens, Lezhandr, Lambert. O kvadrature kruga s prilozheniem istorii voprosa, sostavlennoj prof. F. Rudio, prof. Cyurihskogo politekhnikuma. Perevod s nem. pod redakciej privat-docenta S. Bernshtejna, Har'kovskogo Universiteta, s 21 chertezhom. Izd-vo Mathesis, Odessa, 1911, VIII, 155 s. (Archimedes, Huygens, Legendre, Lambert. On squaring the circle with an application issue stories, compiled by prof. F. Rudio, prof. Zurich Polytechnic.) (in Russian)
%75
\bibitem{76}{Stefanie Ursula Eminger. Carl Friedrich Geiser and Ferdinand Rudio: The Men Behind the First International Congress of Mathematicians. A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of St Andrews. 2015.}
%76
\bibitem{77}{\selectlanguage{russian}{\href{http://www.mi.ras.ru/index.php?c=inmemoriapage&id=27705}{Бернштейн Сергей Натанович.}}} (in Russian) %href{http://www.mi.ras.ru/index.php?c=inmemoriapage&id=27705}{Bernshtejn Sergej Natanovich.} (Sergei Bernstein) (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://www.mi.ras.ru/index.php?c=inmemoriapage&id=27705: 27.03.18.}
%77
\bibitem{78}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Климашкина Е.В. \href{https://superinf.ru/view_helpstud.php?id=1416}{Роль «Педагогического сборника» как источника историко-педагогического опыта кадетских корпусов и военных гимназий.} 17.11.2011}} (in Russian) %Klimashkina E.V. href{http://superinf.ru/view_helpstud.php?id=1416}{Rol' «Pedagogicheskogo sbornika» kak istochnika istoriko-pedagogicheskogo opyta kadetskih korpusov i voennyh gimnazij.} 17.11.2011. (The role of the "Pedagogical of the collection" as a source of historical and pedagogical experience of military schools and military schools). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://superinf.ru/view_helpstud.php?id=1416: 27.03.18.}
%78
\bibitem{79}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Фурре Э. Очерк истории элементарной геометрии. Пер. с фр. А.И. Бакова. - Одесса: Тип. «Вестник виноделия», 1912. - 48с.}} (in Russian) %Furre EH. Ocherk istorii ehlementarnoj geometrii. Per. s fr. A.I. Bakova. - Odessa: Tip. «Vestnik vinodeliya», 1912. - 48s. (Essay on the history of elementary geometry). (in Russian)
%79
\bibitem{80}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Литцман Ф. Теорема Пифагора. С приложением некоторых сведений о теореме Ферма. Пер. с немецкого под общей редакцией приват-доцента С.О. Шатуновского. – Одесса: Mathesis. Типография Л.С. Шутака, 1912. – IV+80с. С 44 рисунками.}} (in Russian) %Litcman F. Teorema Pifagora. S prilozheniem nekotoryh svedenij o teoreme Ferma. Per. s nemeckogo pod obshchej redakciej privat-docenta S.O. SHatunovskogo. – Odessa: Mathesis. Tipografiya L.S. SHutaka, 1912. – IV+80s. S 44 risunkami. (Pythagorean theorem. With the the application of some information about Fermat's theorem). (in Russian)
%80
\bibitem{81}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://lyudmilanik.com.ua/spravka/litcman-valter-i-ego-knigi-po-matematike/}{Вальтер Литцман.}} (in Russian) %\href{http://lyudmilanik.com.ua/spravka/litcman-valter-i-ego-knigi-po-matematike/}{Val'ter Litcman.} (Walter Littsman). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://lyudmilanik.com.ua/spravka/litcman-valter-i-ego-knigi-po-matematike/: 27.03.18.}
%81
\bibitem{82}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/118563/Шатуновский}{Самуил Осипович Шатуновский.}} (in Russian) %\href{http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/118563/Шатуновский}{Samuil Osipovich SHatunovskij.} (Samuel Osipovich Shatunovskii). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/118563/Шатуновский: 27.03.18.}
%82
\bibitem{83}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://obodesse.at.ua/publ/troickaja_ulica/1-1-0-146}{Афанасий Иванович Баков.}} (in Russian) %\href{http://obodesse.at.ua/publ/troickaja_ulica/1-1-0-146}{Afanasij Ivanovich Bakov.} (Athanasius I. Barkov). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://obodesse.at.ua/publ/troickaja_ulica/1-1-0-146: 27.03.18.}
%83
\bibitem{84}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Проф. Е. Леффлер. Цифры и цифровые системы культурных народов в древности и в новое время. Перевод с немецкого И.Л. Левинтова. – Одесса: Mathesis, 1913. – 101с.}} (in Russian) %Prof. E. Leffler. Cifry i cifrovye sistemy kul'turnyh narodov v drevnosti i v novoe vremya. Perevod s nemeckogo I.L. Levintova. – Odessa: Mathesis, 1913. – 101 s. (Figures and digital systems of civilized peoples in antiquity and in modern times). (in Russian)
%84
\bibitem{85}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Рикун И.Э. Научная и педагогическая деятельность Вениамина Федоровича Кагана // \textit{Математика в высшем образовании.} – 2014. - №12.- С.121--138.}} (in Russian) %Rikun I.EH. Nauchnaya i pedagogicheskaya deyatel'nost' Veniamina Fedorovicha Kagana // \textit{Matematika v vysshem obrazovanii.} – 2014. - №12. - S. 121--138. (Scientific and teaching activities of Veniamin F. Kagan). (in Russian)
%85
\bibitem{86}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Таннери Ж. Основные понятия математики с прибавлением очерка Поля Таннери: Основные сведения из истории математики. – СПб: Изд. Т-ва А.С. Суворина - Новое время. 1914. - XVIII, 406 с. в 184 рисунками в тексте.}} (in Russian) %Tanneri ZH. Osnovnye ponyatiya matematiki s pribavleniem ocherka Polya Tanneri: Osnovnye svedeniya iz istorii matematiki. – SPb: Izd. T-va A.S. Suvorina - Novoe vremya. 1914. - XVIII, 406 s. v 184 risunkami v tekste. (Basic concepts of mathematics, with the addition of the essay Paul Tannery: Highlights from the history of mathematics). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{87}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евреинов,_Николай_Николаевич}{Николай Николаевич Евреинов.}} (in Russian) %\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евреинов,_Николай_Николаевич}{Nikolaj Nikolaevich Evreinov.} (Nikolai Evreinov). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евреинов,_Николай_Николаевич: 27.03.18.}
%87
%\bibitem{88}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Тропфке И. \href{http://www.alib.ru/au-tropfke/nm-istoriya_qlementarnoj_matematiki_sistematicheskom_izlozhenii/}{История элементарной математики в систематическом изложении.} Том первый. Арифметика и Алгебра. Часть первая. Арифметика. Перевод с немецкого Д.А. Бема и Р.Э. Струве. Под редакцией Чистякова И.И.- М.: Печатня А. Снегиревой, 1914. - 148 с.}} (in Russian) %Tropfke I. \href{http://www.alib.ru/au-tropfke/nm-istoriya_qlementarnoj_matematiki_sistematicheskom_izlozhenii/}{Istoriya ehlementarnoj matematiki v sistematicheskom izlozhenii.} Tom pervyj. Arifmetika i Algebra. CHast' pervaya. Arifmetika. Perevod s nemeckogo D.A. Bema i R.EH. Struve. Pod redakciej CHistyakova I.I.- M.: Pechatnya A. Snegirevoj, 1914. 148 s. (The history of elementary mathematics in a systematic exposition. Volume One. Arithmetic and Algebra. Part one. Arithmetic). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://www.alib.ru/au-tropfke/nm-istoriya_qlementarnoj_matematiki_sistematicheskom_izlozhenii/: 27.03.18.}
%88
%\bibitem{89}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{http://lib.sale/istoricheskaya-literatura-uchebnik/bem-dmitriy-aleksandrovich-59496.html}{Бем Дмитрий Александрович.}} (in Russian) %\href{http://lib.sale/istoricheskaya-literatura-uchebnik/bem-dmitriy-aleksandrovich-59496.html}{Bem Dmitrij Aleksandrovich.} (Dmitry Bem). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://lib.sale/istoricheskaya-literatura-uchebnik/bem-dmitriy-aleksandrovich-59496.html: 27.03.18.}
%89
%\bibitem{90}{\selectlanguage{russian}\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Чистяков,_Иоасаф_Иванович}{Чистяков Иоасаф Иванович.}} (in Russian) %\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Чистяков,_Иоасаф_Иванович}{90. CHistyakov Ioasaf Ivanovich.} (Chistyakov Joasaph Ivanovich). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Чистяков,_Иоасаф_Иванович: 27.03.18.}
%90
%\bibitem{91}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Ньютон Исаак. Математические начала натуральной философии. С пояснениями и примечаниями А. Н. Крылова. - Пг., тип. М. М. Стасюлевича, 1915--1916. VIII, 620 с.; 38 л. ил. // Известия Николаевской Морской академии. – В. IV и V.}} (in Russian) %N'yuton Isaak. Matematicheskie nachala natural'noj filosofii. S poyasneniyami i primechaniyami A. N. Krylova. - Pg., tip. M. M. Stasyulevicha, 1915--1916. VIII, 620 s.; 38 l. il. // Izvestiya Nikolaevskoj Morskoj akademii. – V. IV i V. (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. With explanations and notes Krylov). (in Russian)
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%\bibitem{92}{\selectlanguage{russian}{Поляхова Е.Н., Королев В.С., Холшевников К.В. \href{https://sibac.info/conf/naturscience/xxvii/40904}{Переводы трудов классиков науки академиком А.Н. Крыловым.}// Естественные и математические науки в современном мире: сборник статей по материалам XXVII международной научно-практической конференции № 2(26). – Новосибирск: СибАК, 2015.}} (in Russian) %Polyahova E.N., Korolev V.S., Holshevnikov K.V. \href{https://sibac.info/conf/naturscience/xxvii/40904}{Perevody trudov klassikov nauki akademikom A.N. Krylovym.} // Natural and mathematical Sciences in the modern world: collection of articles on materials of the XXVII international scientific-practical conference № 2(26). - Novosibirsk: Sibak, 2015. (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/perevody-trudov-klassikov-nauki-akademikom-a-n-krylovym: 27.03.18.}
%92
%}
\end{thebibliography}
\newpage
\noindent{\large\bf Bibliography}\nopagebreak
\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib}
@article {NL1Ryb1941:Nachal,
AUTHOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Рыбников}, К.}",
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Русские издания «Начал» Евклида (библиографические заметки)}",
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Успехи математических наук.},
FJOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Успехи математических наук.},
VOLUME = {9},
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note={Rybnikov K. Russkie izdaniya «Nachal» Evklida. \textit{Uspekhi matematicheskih nauk.} – 1941. - {\selectlanguage{russian} № }9. - 318--321 (Russian edition of the "Elements" of Euclid)(in Russian)}
}
@incollection {NL2Dri2015:deGrote,
key={{Driessen-van het Reve}, Jozien J. },
AUTHOR = "{ \selectlanguage{russian} {Дриссен-ван хет Реве}, Й. ({Driessen-van het Reve}, Jozien J. ) }",
BOOKTITLE = "{ \selectlanguage{russian} Голландские корни Кунсткамеры Петра Великого: история в письмах (1711–1752) = De Hollandse wortels van de Kunstkamera van Peter de Grote: de geschiedenis in brieven (1711–1752) }",
EDITOR = "{ \selectlanguage{russian} Н.П. Копанева}",
TITLE = "{ \selectlanguage{russian} Эпилог. От любительской науки к профессиональной }",
PUBLISHER = "{ \selectlanguage{russian} Рос. акад. наук, Музей антропологии и этнографии им. Петра Великого (Кунсткамера). МАЭ РАН }",
PAGES = { \selectlanguage{russian} 364 с.; ил. },
ADDRESS = { \selectlanguage{russian} Санкт-Петербург: },
YEAR = {2015},
ISBN = { \href{http://www.kunstkamera.ru/lib/rubrikator/08/08_02/978-5-88431-283-8/}{978-5-88431-283-8} },
NOTE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Пер. с нидерл. И.М. Михайловой и Н.В. Возненко }"
}
@book {NL3Ost1958:HAN,
key={Ostrovskij},
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TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} История Академии наук СССР. Т. 1 (1724–1803)}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}М.; Л.: Изд-во АН СССР}},
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NOTE = {Istoriya Akademii nauk SSSR. - T. 1 (1724--1803). Glav.Red. K.V. Ostrovskii - M.-L.: Izd-vo AN SSSR,1958. – S. 434. (History of the USSR Academy of Sciences).(in Russian)}
}
@book {NL4Sol1898:Readings,
key={Solovev},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Соловьев}, С.М.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Чтения и рассказы по истории России.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
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}
@article {NL5Mak1974:Andurov,
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TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Адъюнкт Академии наук В.Е. Адодуров.}",
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Вестник Академии наук СССР},
FJOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Вестник Академии наук СССР}},
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note={Makeeva V.N. Ad'yunkt Akademii nauk V.E. Adodurov. \textit{Vestnik Akademii nauk SSSR.} - 1974. - {\selectlanguage{russian} №} 1. - S. 110--116. (Adjunct of the Academy of Sciences VE Adodurov). (in Russian)}
}
@techreport {NL6Bir2010:lexicography,
key = {Birzhakova},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Биржакова}, Е.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Русская лексикография XVIII века.}",
INSTITUTION = {\selectlanguage{russian} Российская академия наук; Институт лингвистических исследований.},
VOLUME = {СПб: Нестор-История.},
YEAR = {2010},
PAGES = {212 pp.},
note={Birzhakova E. Russkaya leksikografiya XVIII veka. Rossijskaya akademiya nauk; Institut lingvisticheskih issledovanij. - SPb: Nestor-Istoriya. - 2010. - 212 s. (Russian lexicography of the XVIII century). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL6Bir2010B:lexicography,
key = {Birzhakova},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Биржакова}, Е.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Русская лексикография XVIII века.}",
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Российская академия наук; Институт лингвистических исследований.}",
VOLUME = {СПб: Нестор-История.},
YEAR = {2010},
PAGES = {212 pp.},
note={Birzhakova E. Russkaya leksikografiya XVIII veka. Rossijskaya akademiya nauk; Institut lingvisticheskih issledovanij. - SPb: Nestor-Istoriya. - 2010. - 212 s. (Russian lexicography of the XVIII century). (in Russian)}
}
@inproceedings {NL7Smi2013:Gorletsky,
key = {Smirnova},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Смирнова }, А.С.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Академический переводчик Иван Семенович Горлецкий.}",
BOOKTITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Филологическое наследие М. В. Ломоносова.}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Бухаркин},П. Е.; {Волков}, С.С.; {Матвеев}, Е. М.}",
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Российская академия наук; Институт лингвистических исследований.}",
VOLUME = "{\selectlanguage{russian}СПб: Нестор-История.}",
YEAR = {2013},
PAGES = {235--252},
note={Smirnova A.S {\href{http://lomonosov.iling.spb.ru/uploads/french/publications/Smirnova_Akademicheskiy_perevodchik_Gorlitskiy.pdf}{Akademicheskij perevodchik Ivan Semenovich Gorleckij. (Academic translator Ivan Semenovich Gorletsky).}} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: \href{http://lomonosov.iling.spb.ru/uploads/french/publications/Smirnova_Akademicheskiy_perevodchik_Gorlitskiy.pdf}{http://lomonosov.iling.spb.ru}: 27.03.2018.}
}
}
@misc {NL8BIB2018,
key = {Bibliographic Database},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Аннотированная библиография изданий XVIII века Санкт-Петербургской академии наук и Академической типографии.}",
INSTITUTION = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Библиотека Российской Академии наук}",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Санкт-Петербург}",
YEAR = {2002},
note="{{\selectlanguage{russian}Проект осуществлен при поддержке РГНФ.} \href{http://www.rasl.ru/e_resours/ran18/Xronolog/page6/list.html}{Bibliograficheskaya baza dannyh. (Bibliographic Database).} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: \href{http://www.rasl.ru/e_resours/ran18/Xronolog/page6/list.html}{http://www.rasl.ru}: 27.03.2018.}}"
}
@MISC {NL8BIB2018:Gorletsky,
key = {Bibliographic Database},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Аннотированная библиография изданий XVIII века Санкт-Петербургской академии наук и Академической типографии.}",
INSTITUTION = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Библиотека Российской Академии наук}",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Санкт-Петербург}",
YEAR = {2002},
note="{{\selectlanguage{russian}Проект осуществлен при поддержке РГНФ.} \href{http://www.rasl.ru/e_resours/ran18/Xronolog/page6/list.html}{Bibliograficheskaya baza dannyh. (Bibliographic Database).} (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: \href{http://www.rasl.ru/e_resours/ran18/Xronolog/page6/list.html}{http://www.rasl.ru}: 27.03.2018.}}"
}
@book {NL9Kul1977:Readings,
key={Kulyabko},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Кулябко}, Е.С.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Замечательные питомцы академического университета.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Ленинград}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Наука}},
YEAR = {1977},
Pages = {228 c.},
NOTE = {Kulyabko E.S. Zamechatel'nye pitomcy akademicheskogo universiteta / Otv. red.: B. V. Levshin. – L.: Nauka, 1977. – 228 s. (Remarkable graduates of the Academic University). (in Russian)}
}
@article {NL10Bob1890,
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Бобынин}, В.В.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Отдел научных новостей, критики и библиографии. 1887}",
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Журнал чистой и прикладной математики, астрономии и физики.},
FJOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Журнал чистой и прикладной математики, астрономии и физики, издаваемый В.В. Бобыниным, приват-доцентом Императорского Московского университета.},
VOLUME = {3(6)},
YEAR = {1890},
PAGES = {24},
note={Bobynin V.V. Otdel nauchnyh novostej, kritiki i bibliografii. Otdel nauchnyh novostej, kritiki i bibliografii. 1887. – T.3(6). – M., 1890. (in Russian)\textit{ Fiziko-matematicheskie nauki v ih nastoyashchem i proshedshem. ZHurnal chistoj i prikladnoj matematiki, astronomii i fiziki, izdavaemyj V.V. Bobyninym, privat-docentom Imperatorskogo Moskovskogo universiteta.} – 1890. - {\selectlanguage{russian} № }3(6). - 24 (Physics and mathematics in their present and past)(in Russian)}
}
@inbook{NL11EHn2018:Satarovy,
key={ EHnciklopediya},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian} EHnciklopediya, Brokgauz-Efron.}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Арсеньев}, К.К and {Петрушевский}, Ф.Ф.}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Руниверс}},
YEAR = {2018},
Pages={1 p.},
NOTE = {Available [Online] from URL: \href{http://gatchina3000.ru/big/091/91134_brockhaus-efron.htm} {\selectlanguage{russian} Сатаровы. Энциклопедия, Брокгауз-Ефрон.} (Satarovy. EHnciklopediya, Brokgauz-Efron. (Satarov. Encyclopedia, Brockhaus-Efron)) (in Russian): 27.03.2018.}
}
@book {NL12Zue2005,
key={Zuev},
EDITOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Зуев}, Г.И.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Историческая хроника Морского корпуса. 1701--1925 гг.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}ЗАО Центрполиграф ООО «МиМ-Дельта»}},
YEAR = {2005},
Pages={447 c.},
NOTE = {Zuev G.I. Istoricheskaya hronika Morskogo korpusa. 1701-1925 gg. М.: ЗАО Центрполиграф, 2005. – 447 s. ISBN 5-9524-1612-8. (The historical Chronicle of the Marine Corps).(in Russian). [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://coollib.com/b/264374/read: 27.03.2018.}}
}
@unpublished {NL13Pur2018,
KEY = {Pyrkova},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Пырков}, В.Е.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} История отечественного школьного образования. Лекция 5. Морской шляхетский кадетский корпус}",
YEAR = {2018},
NOTE = {Sajt prepodavatelya V.E. Pyrkova. Morskoj shlyahetskij kadetskij korpus. (Marine Cadet Corps Gentry) (in Russian)\footnote{Available on-line from URL\href{http://pyrkov-professor.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=175}{\selectlanguage{russian} Сайт преподавателя В.Е. Пыркова}: 27.03.2018.}.},
}
@techreport {NL14persons2018:Mordvinov,
AUTHOR = {\selectlanguage{russian}Коллективная работа},
key = {Istoriya Voenno-Morskogo flota Rossiii Sovetskogo Soyuza},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Семен Иванович Мордвинов.}",
INSTITUTION = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Военно-морской флот России}",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Санкт-Петербург}",
YEAR = {2018},
note = {\footnote{Available from URL: \href{http://www.navy.su/persons/14/si_mordvinov.htm}{{\selectlanguage{russian}Военно-морской флот России. Персоналии. М.} (in Russian)}: 27.03.2018}.}
}
@techreport {NL15LIT2018:Ahouse,
key = {Mordvinov},
AUTHOR = {\selectlanguage{russian}Коллективная работа},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Книги полного собрания о навигации …}",
INSTITUTION = "{\selectlanguage{russian}ЛИТФОНД. Аукционный дом. Аукцион № 7. 4 февраля 2016 года. Лот 6.}",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Москва}",
YEAR = {2016},
note = {Knigi polnogo sobraniya o navigacii, po ukazu Eya Imperatorskogo Velichestva iz Gosudarstvennoj Admiraltejskoj kollegii morskogo korabel'nogo flota kapitanom Semenom Mordvinovym sochinennye. SPb.: Pri Morskoj Akademicheskoj tip.; pri Morskom SHlyahetnom Kadetskom korpuse, 1748-1753. (in Russian). \footnote{Available on-line from URL: \href{http://www.litfund.ru/auction/7/6/ 27.03.2018.}{\selectlanguage{russian}ЛИТФОНД. Аукционный дом. Аукцион № 7.}}}
}
@inbook{NL16Bib2018:Mordvinov,
key={Bibliography},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Большая биографическая энциклопедия}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Владимирович}, Трубицын Кирилл}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} «Российское образование» - федеральный портал}},
YEAR = {2018},
Pages={1 p.},
NOTE = {Available [Online] from URL: \href{http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/85594/Мордвинов}{\selectlanguage{russian}Мордвинов Семен Иванович.} (Mordvinov Semen Ivanovich. (Mordvinov Semyon)) (in Russian): 27.03.2018.}
}
@MISC {NL17LIB2018:Kurganov,
key = {Ehlektronnaya},
AUTHOR = {\selectlanguage{russian}Коллективная работа},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Курганов Николай Гаврилович.}",
INSTITUTION = "{\selectlanguage{russian} ЭБ «Научное наследие России» инициировалась и создавалась учреждениями РАН.}",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Москва}",
YEAR = {2018},
note="{Available on-line: \href{http://library.ruslan.cc/authors/курганов-николай-гаврилович/}{{\selectlanguage{russian}ЭБ «Научное наследие России».Ученые.Курганов Николай Гаврилович} (in Russian).}: 27.03.2018.}"
}
@book {NL18Pru1956,
key={Prudnikov},
EDITOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Прудников}, В.Е.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Русские педагоги-математики XVIII--XIX веков. Пособие для учителей.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}М.: ГУПИ}},
YEAR = {1956},
Pages = {640 c.},
NOTE = {Prudnikov V.E. Russkie pedagogi-matematiki XVIII--XIX vekov. Posobie dlya uchitelej.- M.: GUPI, 1956. – 640 s. (Russian mathematics pedagogues XVIII-XIX centuries).(in Russian)}
}
@book{NL19Vladimirov2018,
key={Bibliography},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Большая биографическая энциклопедия}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Владимирович}, Трубицын Кирилл}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} «Российское образование» - федеральный портал}},
YEAR = {2018},
NOTE = {Available Online from URL: \href{ http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/90961/Никитин.}
(in Russian): 27.03.2018.}
}
@book{NL20Suvorov2018,
key={Bibliography},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Большая биографическая энциклопедия}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Владимирович}, Трубицын Кирилл}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} «Российское образование» - федеральный портал}},
YEAR = {2018},
NOTE = {Available Online from URL: \href{ http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_biography/117295/Суворов.}
(in Russian): 27.03.2018.}
}
@book {NL21RBD1902--1913,
key={Polovcevj},
EDITOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Половцев}, А.А.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Русский библиографический словарь.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Санкт-Петербург: типография И.Н. Скороходова.}},
YEAR = {1902--1913},
Pages={???},
NOTE = { Russkij bibliograficheskij slovar' / Izdanie pod nablyudeniem predsedatelya Imperatorskogo Russkogo Istoricheskogo Obshchestva A.A. Polovceva. – Sankt-Peterburg: tipografiya I.N. Skorohodova, 1902--1913. - T.1--25. (Russian Biographical Dictionary). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL22Lak1817,
key = {Lakrua},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Лакруа}, С.Ф.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Начальные основания арифметики, составляющие первую часть курса математических наук Лакроа, изданные Главным правлением училищ.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} печатано при Императорской Академии наук}},
YEAR = {1817},
Pages = {220 c.},
NOTE = {Lakrua S. F. Nachal'nye osnovaniya arifmetiki, sostavlyayushchie pervuyu chast' kursa matematicheskih nauk Lakroa, izdannye Glavnym pravleniem uchilishch = Traite elementaire d'arithmetique / Per. s franc. F. Petrushevskogo s nuzhnymi peremenami i pribavleniyami. - SPb.: pechatano pri Imperatorskoj Akademii nauk, 1817. - 220 s. (The initial base of arithmetic,…). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL23Evk1819,
key = {Evklid},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Евклид}}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Эвклидовых начал восемь книг, а именно: первые шесть, одиннадцатая и двенадцатая, содержащие в себе основания геометрии / Пер. с греч. Ф. Петрушевского с прибавлениями и примечаниями.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} типография Департамента народного просвещения}},
YEAR = {1819},
Pages = {480 c.},
NOTE = {Evklidovyh nachal vosem' knig, a imenno: pervye shest', odinnadcataya i dvenadcataya, soderzhashchie v sebe osnovaniya geometrii / Per. s grech. F. Petrushevskogo s pribavleniyami i primech.- SPb: tip. Departamenta narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 1819.- 480s. (Eight books of "Beginnings" of Euclid, …). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL24Evk1835,
key = {Evklid},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Евклид}}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Эвклидовых начал три книги, а именно: седьмая, осьмая и девятая, содержащие общую теорию чисел древних геометров / Пер. с греч. Ф. Петрушевского с прибавлениями и примечаниями.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} типография вдовы Плюшар с сыном}},
YEAR = {1835},
Pages = {160 c.},
NOTE = {Evklidovyh nachal tri knigi, a imenno: sed'maya, os'maya i devyataya, soderzhashchie obshchuyu teoriyu chisel drevnih geometrov / Per. s grech. F. Petrushevskogo s pribavleniyami i primech. - SPb.: tip. vdovy Plyushar s synom, 1835. - 160 s. (Three of the book "Elements" of Euclid). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL25Arh1823,
key = {Arhimed},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Архимед}}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Две книги о шаре и цилиндре. Измерение круга и леммы / Пер. с греч. (леммы с лат.) Ф. Петрушевского с примечаниями и пополнениями.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} типография вдовы Плюшар с сыном}},
YEAR = {1823},
Pages = {240 c.},
NOTE = {Arhimed. Dve knigi o share i cilindre. Izmerenie kruga i lemmy / Per. s grech. (lemmy s lat.) F. Petrushevskogo s primechaniyami i popolneniyami. - SPb., 1823. - 240 s. (Two books about the sphere and cylinder. Measurement circle and Lemma). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL26Arh1824,
key = {Arhimed},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Архимед}}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Псаммит, или Изчисление песку в пространстве равном шару неподвижных звезд / Пер. с греч. Ф. Петрушевского с примечаниями, и с присовокуплением Общей теории величин пропорциональных древних геометров.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} типография Департамента народного просвещения}},
YEAR = {1824},
Pages = {95 c.},
NOTE = {Arhimed. Psammit, ili Izchislenie pesku v prostranstve ravnom sharu nepodvizhnyh zvezd / Per. s grech. F. Petrushevskogo s primechaniyami, i s prisovokupleniem Obshchej teorii velichin proporcional'nyh drevnih geometrov. - SPb., 1824. - 95 s. (Archimedes. The Sand Reckoner). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL27Evk2018,
key = {Wikisource},
AUTHOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Евклид}",
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Начала Евклида.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}проект} Wikimedia},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Витека} (Wikisource) -- {\selectlanguage{russian} свободная библиотека} -- {\selectlanguage{russian} проект фонда Викимедиа}},
YEAR = {2018},
Pages = {492 c.}
}
@article {NL28Dep1950:Nachal,
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Депман}, И.Я.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Забытое издание «Начал» Евклида на русском языке)}",
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Историко-математические исследования.},
FJOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Историко-математические исследования.}},
VOLUME = {3},
YEAR = {1950},
PAGES = {474--485},
note={ Depman I.YA. Zabytoe izdanie «Nachal» Evklida na russkom yazyke // \textit{Istoriko-matematicheskie issledovaniya.} - M.-L.: GITTL, 1950. - № 3. - S. 474--485. (Forgotten edition of the "Elements" of Euclid in Russian). (in Russian)}
}
@article {NL29Tok2005,
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Токарева}, Т. А.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} История математики в России. Рождение дисциплины }",
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Историко-математические исследования.},
FJOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Историко-математические исследования.}},
VOLUME = {44},
YEAR = {2005},
PAGES = {209--237},
note={ Tokareva T.A. Istoriya matematiki v Rossii. Rozhdenie discipliny // \textit{Istoriko-matematicheskie issledovaniya.}- V.44. - 2005. - S.209--237. (History of Mathematics in Russia. The birth of the discipline). (in Russian)}
}
@book {NL30Evk1877,
key = {Evklid},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Евклид}}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Восемь книг геометрии Евклида. Переведено с немецкого издания доктора Гартвинга воспитанниками Александровского Кременчугского реального училища Немировским и Бергером, под руководством Директора училища.}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия? Украина?, г. Кременчуг}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Типография Германа Розенталя.}},
YEAR = {1877},
Pages = {172 c.},
NOTE = {Vosem' knig geometrii Evklida. Perevedeno s nemeckogo izdaniya doktora Gartvinga vospitannikami Aleksandrovskogo Kremenchugskogo real'nogo uchilishcha Nemirovskim i Bergerom, pod rukovodstvom Direktora uchilishcha. Kremenchug. Tipografiya Germana Rozentalya. 1877. - 172 s., 9 l. chert. 21. (Eight books of Euclid's geometry). (in Russian)}
}
@book{NL31Evk1880,
key={Bibliography},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Начала Эвклида с пояснительным введением и толкованиями. Ординарного профессора Императорского университета Св. Владимира М.Е. Ващенко-Захарченко.}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Ващенко-Захарченко}, М.Е.}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Киев}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Типография Императорского Университета Св. Владимира}},
YEAR = {1880},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian}ХV, 747 с.}},
NOTE = {Available on-line from URL: \href{https://dic.academic.ru/contents.nsf/enc_biography/}{dic.academic.ru/contents.nsf/enc\_biography/} (in Russian): 27.03.2018.}
}
@article{NL32Zub1956,
key={Zubov},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian} В.В. Бобынин и его труды по истории математики.}",
AUTHOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Зубов }, В.П.}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Киев}},
JOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Историко-математические исследования}},
YEAR = {1956},
VOLUME={В.15.},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian}С. 277--322.}},
}
@MISC{NL33Evk1950,
key={Evklid},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Начала Евклида. Книги I--VI.}",
NOTE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Пер. с греческого и комментарии Д.Д. Мордухай-Болтовского при редакционном участии М.Я. Выгодского и И.Н. Веселовского.}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian} М.-Л.: ГИТТЛ}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Типография Императорского Университета Св. Владимира}},
YEAR = {1950},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian}447 с.}}
}
@MISC{NL34Evk1883,
key={Geometriya drevnih},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Геометрия древних.}",
NOTE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Преподавателя Одесской третьей гимназии М. Панченко.}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Одесса}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Типография Императорского Университета Св. Владимира}},
YEAR = {1883},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian} 10 с.}}
}
@MISC{NL35Evk1880,
key={Soobshcheniya i protokoly},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Сообщения и протоколы заседаний Математического Общества при Императорском Харьковском университете.}",
NOTE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Преподавателя Одесской третьей гимназии М. Панченко.}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Одесса}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Императорскии Харьковскии университет.}},
YEAR = {1880},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian} В.2. - С. 129--135.}}
}
@book{NL36Montucla1758,
key={Montucla, J.E.},
AUTHOR = "{Jean-Étienne Montucla}",
title="{Mathématiques -- Histoire -- Ouvrages avant 1800 }",
PUBLISHER={Jérôme de La Lande (1732-1807). Continuateur. Éditeur scientifique. H. Agasse},
ADDRESS = {Paris},
VOLUME = {1-4},
YEAR = {1799-1802},
NOTE={\href{https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1076512}{Histoire des mathématiques. T. 1 / , dans laquelle on rend compte de leurs progrès depuis leur origine jusqu'à nos jours... Nouvelle édition... par Jean-Étienne Montucla (1725-1799)}. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Date of online availability :
15/10/2007 }
}
@MISC{NL37Kochetkova:2018,
key={Kochetkova, N.D.},
AUTHOR="{\selectlanguage{russian} Кочеткова, Н.Д.}",
TITLE="{\href{http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=574}{\selectlanguage{russian}Богданович Петр Иванович.}}",
NOTE = "{[Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=574: 27.03.18.}}",
YEAR = {2018},
}
@book{NL38Montyukla:1779,
key={Montyukla, ZH.-EH.},
AUTHOR="{\selectlanguage{russian} Монтюкла, Ж.-Э.}",
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}История математики.}",
NOTE = "{\selectlanguage{russian}Перевод П.И. Богдановича}",
YEAR = {1779--1781},
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian}Академические известия.}"
}
@article{NL39Lenorman1868,
key={Lenorman},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian} Об открытии египетского папируса, содержащего отрывок из геометрии в приложении к межеванию.}",
AUTHOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Ленорман }, Ф.}",
JOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Горный журнал.}},
YEAR = {1868},
VOLUME={{\selectlanguage{russian}Ч.1. }},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian}С. 300--301.}},
NOTE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Перевод Д. Планера}"
}
@book{NL40Polovce:1910,
key={Polovcev},
AUTHOR="{{\selectlanguage{russian} Половцова, А.А.}}",
TITLE="{\href{http://dlib.rsl.ru/viewer/01002921692}{\selectlanguage{russian}Русский библиографический словарь: Плавильщиков - Примо.}}",
NOTE = "{{\selectlanguage{russian}Изд. под наблюдением председателя Императорского Русского Исторического Общества А.А. Половцова.}}",
YEAR = {1910[2]},
VOLUME={\selectlanguage{russian} Т. 14.},
PAGES={\selectlanguage{russian} 800 с.},
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} тип. И. Н. Скороходова}",
ADDRESS={\selectlanguage{russian}Санкт-Петербург}
}
@book{NL41Lui:1869,
key={Lui},
AUTHOR="{\selectlanguage{russian} Фигье, Луи}",
TITLE="{\href{https://edu-lib.com/matematika-2/dlya-studentov/lui-fige-svetila-nauki-ot-drevnosti-d}{\selectlanguage{russian} Светила науки от древности до наших дней. Великие ученые древности.}}",
NOTE = "{\selectlanguage{russian}(с 38 портретами и гравюрами, снятыми с древних памятников).}",
YEAR = {1869},
VOLUME={\selectlanguage{russian} Т. 14.},
PAGES={\selectlanguage{russian} 470 с.},
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Издание книгопродавца-типографа М. О. Вольфа}",
ADDRESS={selectlanguage{russian}Санкт-Петербург – Москва}
}
@MISC{NL42Strahov:2018,
key={Kochetkova, N.D.},
TITLE="{\href{http://dspace.bsu.edu.ru/bitstream/123456789/20927/1/Strahov_ukasatel.pdf}{\selectlanguage{russian}Николай Николаевич Страхов: философ, литературный критик, переводчик.}}",
NOTE = "{[Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://dspace.bsu.edu.ru/bitstream/123456789/20927/1/Strahov\_ukasatel.pdf: 27.03.18.}}",
YEAR = {2018},
}
@book{NL43Lui:1887,
key={Lui},
AUTHOR="{\selectlanguage{russian} Фигье, Луи}",
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian} Светила науки от древности до наших дней. Великие ученые древности.}",
NOTE = "{{\selectlanguage{russian}В 3-х томах.} (Luminaries of science from antiquity to the present day. The great scholars of antiquity)}",
YEAR = {1869--1873},
PAGES={\selectlanguage{russian} 470 с.},
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Издание книгопродавца-типографа М. О. Вольфа}",
ADDRESS={selectlanguage{russian}Санкт-Петербург – Москва}
}
@article{NL44Zuter1877,
key={Zuter},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian} Рецензия на книгу «История математических наук» доктора Генриха Зутера…}",
AUTHOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} { Зутера }, Генриха}",
JOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Журнал Министерства Народного Просвещения.}},
YEAR = {1877},
VOLUME={{\selectlanguage{russian}Часть 193. }},
pages={{\selectlanguage{russian}октябрь, отд. 3. С. 37--41.}},
NOTE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Перевод Д. Планера}"
}
@book{NL45Zuter:1876,
key={Zuter},
AUTHOR={\selectlanguage{russian} Зутер Г.},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}История математических наук.}",
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Кишинев}},
VOLUME={\selectlanguage{russian} Ч.1.},
YEAR = {1876},
PAGES={\selectlanguage{russian} 192 c.},
NOTE = {\selectlanguage{russian} С древнейших времен до конца XVI столетия. Перевел с некоторыми изменениями и дополнениями со 2-го немецкого издания Антон Мануйлов.}
}
@book{Bib2018:All,
key={Bibliography},
TITLE="{\selectlanguage{russian}Большая биографическая энциклопедия}",
EDITOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Владимирович}, Трубицын Кирилл}",
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} «Российское образование» - федеральный портал}},
YEAR = {2018},
NOTE = {Available on-line from URL: \href{https://dic.academic.ru/contents.nsf/enc_biography/}{dic.academic.ru/contents.nsf/enc\_biography/} (in Russian): 27.03.2018.}
}
@book {NVS2000,
key={Skritskiy},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Скрицкий}, Николай Владимирович}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Самые знаменитые флотоводцы России}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Вече}},
YEAR = {2000},
Pages={480 c.},
NOTE = {Skritskiy N. V. (2000) Samyye znamenityye flotovodtsy Rossii. Moskva: Veche. 480 s.}
}
@book {Ras1960:Pavlenko,
key={Rassudovskaya N.M.},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Рассудовская }, Н. М.}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Издатель Ф. Ф. Павленков (1839—1900): Очерк жизни и деятельности}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = { {\selectlanguage{russian} Издательство Всесоюзной книжной палаты}},
YEAR = {1960},
Pages={108 c.},
NOTE = {Rassudovskaya N.M. (1960) Izdatel' F. F. Pavlenkov (1839—1900): Ocherk zhizni i deyatel'nosti. M.: Izdatel'stvo Vsesoyuznoj knizhnoj palaty. 108 s.%\href{https://историк.рф/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Флорентий-Павлёнков.jpg}{jpg}
}
}
@book {NVS1961,
key={Denisov},
AUTHOR = "{\selectlanguage{russian} {Денисов}, Аркадий Пантелеймонович}",
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian}Н.Г. Курганов – выдающийся русский ученый и просветитель XVIII века }",
ADDRESS = {\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Ленинград},
PUBLISHER = {\selectlanguage{russian}Лениздат},
YEAR = {1961},
Pages={180 c.},
NOTE = { Denisov A.R. (1961) N. G. Kurganov - vydayushchijsya russkij uchenyj i prosvetitel' XVIII veka. Leningrad: Lenizdat. 180 s.}
}
@MISC {NVS1898,
KEY={Shtremer},
author = {\selectlanguage{russian} Коллективная работа},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Семидесятипятилетие Гимназии Императорского Человеколюбивого общества}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Типография К. Штремера}},
YEAR = {1898},
Pages={286 c.},
NOTE = {(1898) Semidesyatipyatiletie Gimnazii Imperatorskogo Chelovekolyubivogo obshchestva.1820-1895 g.: Istoricheskij obzor. Sankt-Peterburg: Tipografiya K. Shtremera, 286 s.}
}
@book {NVS1983,
key={Bogolyubov},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Боголюбов}, Алексей Николаевич}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Математики. Механики. Биографический справочник}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Киев}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Наукова думка}},
YEAR = {1983},
Pages={638 c.},
NOTE = {Bogolyubov A.N. (1983) Matematiki. Mekhaniki. Biograficheskij spravochnik. Kiev, Naukova dumka. 638 s.}
}
@book {NVS1984,
key={ Strahov},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Страхов}, Николай Николаевич}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Литературная критика }},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Россия, г. Москва}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Современник}},
YEAR = {1984},
Pages={431 c.},
NOTE = { Strahov N.N. (1984) Literaturnaya kritika. Moskva: Sovremennik. 431 s.}
}
@article {CzNG1940:Shatunovskij,
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Чеботарёв}, Николай Григорьевич}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Самуил Осипович Шатуновский (к 10-летию со дня смерти)}},
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian}Успехи математических наук},
ADDRESS = {\selectlanguage{russian} г. Москва, Россия.},
VOLUME = {7},
YEAR = {1940},
Pages={316–321},
Note = { CHebotaryov, N.G. (1940) Samuil Osipovich Shatunovskij (k 10-letiyu so dnya smerti), Uspekhi matematicheskih nauk, vypusk 7, 316–321}
}
@MISC {NL58Biografia:Tsereteli,
KEY={Cereteli},
Author = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Биографика СПбГУ.}},
TITLE = {\href{http://bioslovhist.history.spbu.ru/component/fabrik/details/1/686.html}{\selectlanguage{russian} Церетели Григорий (Григол) Филимонович.}},
YEAR = {2018},
Note = { [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://bioslovhist.history.spbu.ru/component/fabrik/details/1/686.html: 27.03.18.}}
}
@article {NL60FKZ1967:Par,
KEY={Galimov},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Галимов, К. З.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Николай Николаевич Парфент'ев (к 90-летию со дня рождения). }",
JOURNAL = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Исследования по теории пластин и оболочек }",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian} г. Казань Россия.}",
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Изд-во Казанского ун-та}",
VOLUME = {5},
YEAR = {1967},
Pages={626--633},
Note = { Galimov K. Z. (1967) Nikolaj Nikolaevich Parfent'ev (k 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya). — Issledovaniya po teorii plastin i obolochek, 5, Izd-vo Kazanskogo un-ta, Kazan', 626-633}
}
@MISC {NL87Evreinov:Bezelianskii,
KEY={Wikipedia},
Author = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Безелянский, Юрий.}},
TITLE = {\selectlanguage{russian}\href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евреинов,\_Николай\_Николаевич}{Николай Николаевич Евреинов.}},
YEAR = {2018},
Note = { Online]\footnote{Available from URL: \href{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евреинов,\_Николай\_Николаевич}{https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евреинов,\_Николай\_Николаевич}: 27.03.18.}}
}
@book {NL88Tropke1914:Istoria,
key = {Tropke},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Тропфке, И.}},
TITLE = "{\href{http://www.alib.ru/au-tropfke/nm-istoriya\_qlementarnoj\_matematiki\_sistematicheskom\_izlozhenii/}{\selectlanguage{russian} История элементарной математики в систематическом изложении.}}",
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Печатня А. Снегиревой}",
ADDRESS="{\selectlanguage{russian} г. Москва, Россия.}",
PAGES = "{\selectlanguage{russian} 148 с.}",
YEAR = {1914},
NOTE = "{ {\selectlanguage{russian} Том первый. Арифметика и Алгебра. Часть первая. Арифметика. Перевод с немецкого Д.А. Бема и Р.Э. Струве. Под редакцией Чистякова И.И.}}"
}
@book {NL89persons2018:Bem,
key = {Nikitin},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Никитин, А.Л.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Бем Дмитрий Александрович.}",
PUBLISHER = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Электронная библиотека}",
ADDRESS = "{LibSale.}",
YEAR = {2018},
NOTE = "{ {\selectlanguage{russian} Военное дело. Историческая литература.}: Bem Dmitrij Aleksandrovich. (Dmitry Bem). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://lib.sale/istoricheskaya-literatura-uchebnik/bem-dmitriy-aleksandrovich-59496.html: 27.03.18.}}"
}
@MISC {NL90persons2018:Chistyakov,
key = {EHlektronnaya},
AUTHOR = {\selectlanguage{russian} Коллективная работа.},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Чистяков Иоасаф Иванович.}",
INSTITUTION = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Википедия. Свободная энциклопедия.}",
ADDRESS = "{\selectlanguage{russian}???.}",
YEAR = {2018},
NOTE = "{CHistyakov Ioasaf Ivanovich.} (Chistyakov Joasaph Ivanovich). (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Чистяков,\_Иоасаф\_Иванович: 27.03.18.}"
}
@article {NL91Ny1915,
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Ньютон}, И.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Ньютон Исаак. Математические начала натуральной философии. С пояснениями и примечаниями А. Н. Крылова.}",
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Известия Николаевской Морской академии.},
FJOURNAL = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Известия Николаевской Морской академии.}},
VOLUME = {IV--V},
YEAR = {1915--1916},
PAGES = {620 c.},
NOTE = {N'yuton Isaak. Matematicheskie nachala natural'noj filosofii. S poyasneniyami i primechaniyami A. N. Krylova. - Pg., tip. M. M. Stasyulevicha, 1915--1916. VIII, 620 s.; 38 l. il. // Izvestiya Nikolaevskoj Morskoj akademii. – V. IV i V. (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. With explanations and notes Krylov). (in Russian)}
}
@inproceedings {NL92Pol2015,
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Поляхова}, Е.Н., {Королев}, В.С., {Холшевников}, К.В.}},
TITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Переводы трудов классиков науки академиком А.Н. Крыловым.}",
BOOKTITLE = "{\selectlanguage{russian} Естественные и математические науки в современном мире: сборник статей по материалам XXVII международной научно-практической конференции.}",
YEAR = {2015},
EDITOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Ответственный за издание сборника трудов конференции- Гуцалова Надежда Георгиевна {Гуцалова},Н.Г.}},
ORGANIZATION = {{\selectlanguage{russian} НП «СибАК» }},
PUBLISHER = {\selectlanguage{russian} СибАк.},
ADRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Россия.г.Новосибирск.}},
VOLUME = {2},
SERIES = {26},
MONTH = {февраль},
PAGES = {108--128},
NOTE = {Polyahova E.N., Korolev V.S., Holshevnikov K.V. \href{https://sibac.info/conf/naturscience/xxvii/40904}{Perevody trudov klassikov nauki akademikom A.N. Krylovym.} // Natural and mathematical Sciences in the modern world: collection of articles on materials of the XXVII international scientific-practical conference № 2(26). - Novosibirsk: Sibak, 2015. (in Russian) [Online]\footnote{Available from URL: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/perevody-trudov-klassikov-nauki-akademikom-a-n-krylovym: 27.03.18.}
}}
@book {NVS1969:Cereteli,
key={Kauhchishvili},
AUTHOR = {{\selectlanguage{russian} {Каухчишвили}, Семен Георгиевич}},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Григорий Филимонович Церетели 1870-1939}},
ADDRESS = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Грузия, г. Тбилиси}},
PUBLISHER = {{\selectlanguage{russian}Изд-во Тбилисского ун-та}},
YEAR = {1969},
Pages={21 c.},
NOTE = { Kauhchishvili S. G. (1969) Grigorij Filimonovich Cereteli [1870-1939]. Tbilisi: Izdanie Tbilisskogo universiteta. 21 s.}
}
@article {FKZ1967:Parfentiev,
AUTHOR = {\selectlanguage{russian} { Галимов }, К. З.},
TITLE = {{\selectlanguage{russian} Николай Николаевич Парфент'ев (к 90-летию со дня рождения). }},
JOURNAL = {\selectlanguage{russian} Исследования по теории пластин и оболочек },
ADDRESS = {\selectlanguage{russian} г. Казань Россия.},
PUBLISHER = {\selectlanguage{russian} Изд-во Казанского ун-та},
VOLUME = {5},
YEAR = {1967},
Pages={626--633},
Note = { Galimov K. Z. (1967) Nikolaj Nikolaevich Parfent'ev (k 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya). — Issledovaniya po teorii plastin i obolochek, 5, Izd-vo Kazanskogo un-ta, Kazan', 626-633}
}
\end{filecontents}
\bibliography{\jobname}
\bibliographystyle{abbrvnat}
%\medskip
\selectlanguage{polish}
\Polskitrue
\begin{center}
{\bf Historia matematyki w Rosji: tłumaczenia i translatory (XVIII--początku XX wieku)}\\[1.5ex]
\href{\repo/5124
}{Natalia Vasilievna Lokot}
\end{center}
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\begin{abstract} Artykuł poświęcony jest powstaniu w Rosji Historii Matematyki jako odrębnej nauki. Jego elementy zaczęły intensywnie wyłaniać się w epoce Piotra Wielkiego i przeszły kilka etapów rozwoju. Wyróżnić można pięć etapów, które przeszli rosyjscy naukowcy, kształtując elementy badań z historii matematyki w naukę z własnym przedmiotem, celami i metodami. Celem tego artykułu jest analiza pierwszego, tj. etapu przekładów historycznych i naukowych. Chronologicznie przeanalizowaliśmy dwa rodzaje tłumaczeń w tym dziele (tłumaczenia prac matematycznych wczesnych Greków i tłumaczenia dzieł zachodnioeuropejskich poświęconych historii matematyki) oraz przyjrzeliśmy się osobowości tłumaczy, stosunkowo mało znanym osobom w literaturze poświęconej historii matematyki.
\end{abstract}
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